OBJECTIVE To determine the tonicity effects of β-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate, and lactate in canine RBCs.
SAMPLE RBCs from approximately 40 dogs.
PROCEDURES 2 in vitro methods were used to conduct 4 experiments. The modified osmotic fragility assay was used to measure the ability of ketoacid salts added to serial sucrose dilutions to protect RBCs from osmotic hemolysis. In a second assay, a handheld cell counting device was used to measure changes in RBC diameter to assess the tonicity effect of solutions of ketoacid and lactate salts.
RESULTS For the modified osmotic fragility assay, all ketoacid salts had an osmoprotective effect, but the effect was determined to be completely attributable to the tonicity effect of added cations (sodium and lithium) and not the ketoacid moieties. However, both the sodium and lithium lactate salts provided osmoprotection attributable to both the cation and lactate anion. For the second assay, RBC diameter was significantly increased with the addition of urea (an ineffective osmole) but did not change with the addition of glucose (an effective osmole), which established the behaviors of ineffective and effective osmoles in this assay. The RBC diameter was significantly increased over that of control samples by the addition of sodium β-hydroxybutyrate, lithium acetoacetate, and lithium lactate but was decreased by the addition of sodium lactate.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE For both assays, β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate acted as ineffective osmoles, whereas lactate acted as an effective osmole in 3 of 4 experiments.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate mean corpuscular volume difference (dMCV) as a marker for hypertonicity induced by water deprivation in dogs.
ANIMALS 5 healthy Greyhounds maintained in a research colony.
PROCEDURES Water was withheld for 24 hours. Blood and urine samples were collected before (time 0) and every 6 hours during water deprivation. Serum and urine osmolality were measured on the basis of freezing point depression, and dMCV was calculated from routine hematologic variables.
RESULTS Serum and urine osmolality significantly increased and body weight decreased over time in healthy Greyhounds during water deprivation, although most dogs developed only a slight increase in serum osmolality. The dMCV also increased over time, but the value at 24 hours did not differ significantly from the value at time 0. However, a significant correlation was found between serum osmolality and dMCV. A dMCV ≥ 5 fL yielded 100% specificity for predicting hypertonicity when hypertonicity was defined as serum osmolality ≥ 310 mOsM.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE dMCV may be a useful marker for detection of mild hypertonicity in dogs and may have clinical and research applications for use in screening canine populations for hypertonicity.
To identify the antifungal susceptibility of Nanniziopsis guarroi isolates and to evaluate the single-dose pharmacokinetics of orally administered terbinafine in bearded dragons.
8 healthy adult bearded dragons.
4 isolates of N guarroi were tested for antifungal susceptibility. A compounded oral solution of terbinafine (25 mg/mL [20 mg/kg]) was given before blood (0.2 mL) was drawn from the ventral tail vein at 0, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours after administration. Plasma terbinafine concentrations were measured with high-performance liquid chromatography.
The antifungal minimum inhibitory concentrations against N guarroi isolates ranged from 4,000 to > 64,000 ng/mL for fluconazole, 125 to 2,000 ng/mL for itraconazole, 125 to 2,000 ng/mL for ketoconazole, 125 to 1,000 ng/mL for posaconazole, 60 to 250 ng/mL for voriconazole, and 15 to 30 ng/mL for terbinafine. The mean ± SD peak plasma terbinafine concentration in bearded dragons was 435 ± 338 ng/mL at 13 ± 4.66 hours after administration. Plasma concentrations remained > 30 ng/mL for > 24 hours in all bearded dragons and for > 48 hours in 6 of 8 bearded dragons. Mean ± SD terminal half-life following oral administration was 21.2 ± 12.40 hours.
Antifungal susceptibility data are available for use in clinical decision making. Results indicated that administration of terbinafine (20 mg/kg, PO, q 24 to 48 h) in bearded dragons may be appropriate for the treatment of dermatomycoses caused by N guarroi. Clinical studies are needed to determine the efficacy of such treatment.
To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of terbinafine administered to western pond turtles (Actinemys marmorata) via oral gavage and bioencapsulated in earthworms.
7 western pond turtles.
A randomized complete crossover single-dose pharmacokinetic study was performed. Compounded terbinafine (25 mg/mL; 30 mg/kg) was administered through oral gavage (OG) directly into the stomach or bioencapsulated (BEC) into an earthworm vehicle. Blood (0.2 mL) was drawn from the jugular vein at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 120 hours after administration. Plasma terbinafine levels were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography.
Peak plasma terbinafine concentrations of 786.9 ± 911 ng/mL and 1,022.2 ± 911 were measured at 1.8 ± 2.8 and 14.1 ± 12.3 hours after OG and BEC administration, respectively. There was a significant (P = .031) increase in area under the curve with BEC compared to OG. Using steady-state predictions, with once-daily terbinafine administration, 3/7 and 7/7 turtles had plasma concentrations persistently greater than the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for Emydomyces testavorans for the OG and BEC administration routes of administration, respectively. With administration every 48 hours, 3/7 turtles for the OG phase and 6/7 turtles for the BEC phase had concentrations greater than the E. testavorans MIC throughout the entire dosing interval.
Administration of terbinafine (30 mg/kg) every 24 or 48 hours via earthworm bioencapsulation in western pond turtles may be appropriate for the treatment of shell lesions caused by E. testavorans. Clinical studies are needed to assess the efficacy of treatment.
Dogs were randomly assigned to receive lomustine (approx 75 mg/m2, PO, q 21 d for 5 doses) alone (n = 5) or with prednisone (approx 1.5 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h for 12 weeks; 5). For each dog, a CBC, serum biochemical analysis, liver function testing, urinalysis, and ultrasonographic examination of the liver with acquisition of liver biopsy specimens were performed before and at predetermined times during and after lomustine administration. Results were compared between dogs that did and did not receive prednisone.
7 of the I0 dogs developed clinical signs of liver failure. For all dogs, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, bile acid concentrations, and liver histologic score increased and hepatic reduced glutathione content decreased over time. Peak serum ALT (r = 0.79) and ALP (r = 0.90) activities and bile acid concentration (r = 0.68) were positively correlated with the final histologic score. Prednisone did not appear to have a protective effect on histologic score.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
In dogs, liver enzyme activities, particularly ALT and ALP activities, should be closely monitored during lomustine treatment and acute increases in those activities may warrant discontinuation of lomustine to mitigate liver injury. Nonspecific ultrasonographic findings and abnormal increases in liver function tests were not detected until the onset of clinical liver failure. Glutathione depletion may have a role in lomustine-induced hepatopathy and warrants further investigation.