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  • Author or Editor: Jennifer M. Hutchison x
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Abstract

Objective

To establish normal predictive values for cord dorsum potential (CDP) onset latency after thoracic and pelvic limb sensory or mixed nerve stimulation in adult dogs.

Animals

26 clinically normal adult dogs.

Procedure

Sensory nerve action potentials (SNAP) were recorded proximally from tibial and lateral superficial radial nerves after distal stimulation. The CDP were recorded from the L4-L5 interarcuate ligament for the tibial nerve and from the C7-T1 interarcuate ligament for the radial nerve. Linear regression analyses were performed for CDP onset latency, and mean ± SD was calculated for CDP onset to peak latency differences and sensory nerve conduction velocities (SNCV).

Results

For the tibial nerve, expected CDP onset latency (CDPOL) = −1.194 + 0.014 × pelvic limb length (mm; R 2 = 0.912); CDPOL = −2.156 + 0.011 × pelvic limb/spinal length (mm; R 2 = 0.911); and CDPOL = 0.941 + 2.197 × tibial nerve SNAP latency (milliseconds; R 2 = 0.903). For the radial nerve, CDPOL = −0.9 + 0.014 × thoracic limb length (mm; R 2 = 0.873); and CDPOL = 1.454 + 1.874 × radial nerve SNAP latency (milliseconds; R 2 = 0.903). Mean ± SD for CDP onset to peak latency difference for tibial and radial nerves was 3.1 ± 0.3 and 3.0 ± 0.4 milliseconds, respectively.

Conclusions

Strong linear associations exist between CDPOL and a number of easily measured peripheral independent variables in dogs. There is also a narrow range of normal values for CDP onset to peak latency differences that is independent of limb length.

Clinical Relevance

CDP evaluation can be used to accurately assess functional severity and distribution of abnormalities in proximal sensory nerves, dorsal nerve roots, and spinal cord dorsal horns in dogs with suspected neuropathy, radiculopathy, or myelopathy involving the brachial or lumbosacral intumescences. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:222-226)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To obtain information from specialists in equine surgery as to prevalence of, predisposing factors for, and methods to prevent postoperative adhesion formation in horses undergoing abdominal surgery.

Design

Survey.

Procedure

Surveys were mailed to 196 diplomates of the American College of Veterinary Surgeons involved in equine practice.

Results

60 (31%) surveys were returned. Most respondents (55/60) routinely informed clients of the risk of postoperative adhesion formation in horses with small intestinal lesions. When asked after which procedures they routinely used measures to prevent adhesions, 56 of 60 (93%) indicated that they did after small intestinal resection and anastomosis and 56 of 60 (93%) indicated that they did after any abdominal surgery in foals. The 4 methods most frequently listed when respondents were asked which methods were effective at preventing adhesion formation were meticulous surgical technique, administration of antibiotics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, intraoperative peritoneal lavage, and methods that prevent abdominal contamination. Most respondents (50/60) thought that at least some horses with colic secondary to adhesion formation could be managed medically. Fifty-four (90%) respondents indicated that they were successful less than half of the time when treating horses with adhesions severe enough to require additional surgery.

Conclusion

In general, respondents thought that less than 15% of horses undergoing abdominal surgery would develop adhesions, but that horses with small intestinal disease and foals were most prone to develop adhesions. Meticulous surgical technique was thought to be the most important factor in preventing adhesions, and many prevention regimens reported to be effective in the literature were not commonly used in practice. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:1573–1576)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine associations between clinical and histologic factors in dogs with primary lung tumors and outcome and to develop a histologic grading method for primary lung tumors.

Design

Retrospective study.

Animals

67 dogs undergoing thoracotomy and lobectomy for primary lung tumors.

Procedure

Medical records and histologic sections were reviewed to evaluate factors of prognostic importance. Association of these factors with disease-free interval (DFI) and survival time was evaluated, using the Cox proportional hazards model. Median DFI and survival time were determined, using the Kaplan-Meier product-limit method.

Results

Clinical and histologic factors significantly associated with prognosis were histologic score, detection of clinical signs, and metastasis to regional lymph nodes. On the basis of histologic score, a histologic grading method was developed. Dogs with well-differentiated tumors had significantly longer survival time and DFI (median DFI, 493 days) than dogs with moderately (median DFI, 191 days) or poorly (median DFI, 0 days) differentiated tumors. Dogs with clinical signs or metastasis to regional lymph nodes had shorter survival times and DFI than dogs in which lung masses were discovered as an incidental finding.

Clinical Implications

Dogs with well-differentiated, nonmetastasized, primary lung tumors that do not have clinical signs associated with the tumor have a favorable prognosis. Dogs with more advanced disease or aggressive tumors histologically may require treatment, such as chemotherapy in combination with surgery. The grading method proposed here for primary lung tumors may be useful in other dogs with primary lung tumors. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:1422–1427)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Immunodeficiency was diagnosed as the cause of severe debilitating disease characterized by weight loss, failure to grow, and persistent infections that failed to respond to treatment in 12 young llamas. The llamas were affected after maternal-acquired immunity had decreased; failure of passive transfer of immunoglobulins thus was not suspected. Areas of lymph nodes containing T lymphocytes were hypocellular, suggesting T-cell involvement. High serum immunoglobulin concentrations were not found, despite the existence of infectious disease, suggesting at least secondary B-cell involvement. Results of lymphocyte blastogenesis assays were suggestive of B- and T-cell involvement. It was not possible to determine whether the condition was inherited or acquired.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate efficacy of a controlled-release cisplatin delivery system, used after marginal resection of mammary carcinoma (ie, resection of grossly evident tumor) in mice, to prevent tumor regrowth and metastasis.

Animals

42 female C3H-HeJ mice.

Procedure

Mice were inoculated with mammary carcinoma cells. Between 2 and 6 days later, tumors were marginally resected and mice were assigned to 1 of 3 groups: no treatment (control; n = 14), cisplatin administered intraperitoneally (IP cisplatin; 14), and cisplatin delivered by use of an open-cell polylactic acid system placed within the tumor bed (slow-release cisplatin; 14). Tumor regrowth was measured daily. Mice were euthanatized 14 days after surgery, and complete necropsies were performed.

Results

Tumor regrowth was not detected in the slow-release cisplatin group; however, tumor regrowth was detected in 7 of 14 mice in the IP cisplatin group and 14 of 14 mice in the control group. Median (± SD) number of days to tumor regrowth was 13.5 ± 0.64 and 7.79 ± 0.87 in the IP cisplatin and control groups, respectively. Mice in the IP cisplatin group had significantly delayed tumor regrowth, compared with control mice. Metastases to lungs were detected in 8 of 14 control mice but were not detected in mice in either cisplatin treatment group.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

The open-cell polylactic acid with cisplatin delivery system was successful in delaying local tumor regrowth and metastasis in mice with marginally resected mammary carcinoma. Use of a controlled-release cisplatin delivery system may be an effective adjunct treatment following excision of mammary carcinoma in humans and other animals. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1347–1351)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research