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A 10-year-old 5.3-kg (11.7-lb) neutered male Chihuahua was referred for evaluation of a mediastinal mass and pleural effusion identified on thoracic radiographs obtained by the referring veterinarian. Clinical signs included a nonproductive cough of 3 days' duration, respiratory difficulty, and restlessness the night prior to hospital admission.

Physical examination findings included obesity (body condition score, 8/9), tachypnea (44 breaths/min; reference range, 18 to 35 breaths/min), and tachycardia (228 beats/min; reference range, 70 to 120 beats/min) with an irregularly irregular cardiac rhythm. The dog's body temperature was within reference range (37.6°C [99.7°F]; reference range, 37.2° to 39.2°C [99.0° to 102.5°F]).

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

An 11-year-old 6-kg (13.2-lb) neutered male Yorkshire Terrier was evaluated for thoracolumbar hyperesthesia and sudden-onset ambulatory paraparesis. A week prior, the referring veterinarian identified signs of thoracolumbar discomfort during a routine physical examination and NSAID treatment was instituted. At the referral examination, clinical signs had progressed to bilateral hind limb ataxia and hyperesthesia with vocalization. Historically, the dog had chronic diabetes mellitus and had undergone bilateral cataract phacoemulsification surgery. Current treatments included insulin a (2.17 U/kg [0.99 U/lb], SC, q 12 h). Physical examination revealed a pendulous abdomen with cranial abdominal organomegaly, bilaterally weak femoral pulses, and symmetric mild

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
History

A 14-year-old sexually intact male Labrador Retriever was evaluated because of coughing and lethargy of 3 to 4 months' duration. Approximately 1 week prior to initial evaluation, the dog became anorexic and the owners noticed acute development of swelling of the ventral aspect of the neck. Physical examination findings included signs of lethargy, mild dehydration, and generalized ventral cervical swelling. Coughing was noted, but no abnormalities were detected on thoracic auscultation. Mild anemia (PCV, 30%; reference range, 34% to 60%) was detected on CBC. Prothrombin time and partial thromboplastin time were within the reference ranges. Radiographs of the thorax

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—A 5-month-old 1.9-kg (4.2-lb) spayed female Siamese cat was evaluated because of a history of decreased appetite, regurgitation, vomiting, and lack of weight gain.

Clinical Findings—Radiographic findings included a fluid- and gas-distended stomach with a small accumulation of mineral opacities. Ultrasonographic examination confirmed severe fluid distention of the stomach with multiple hyperechoic structures present and revealed protrusion of the thickened pylorus into the gastric lumen, with normal pylorogastric serosal continuity. Endoscopy of the upper gastrointestinal tract revealed an abnormally shortened pyloric antrum and stenotic pyloric outflow orifice. Pyloric stenosis resulting in pyloric outflow obstruction was diagnosed.

Treatment and Outcome—A pylorectomy with end-to-end gastroduodenostomy (Billroth I procedure) was successfully performed, and a temporary gastrostomy tube was placed. Six days after surgery, the cat was eating and drinking normally, with the tube only used for administration of medications. The gastrostomy tube was removed 12 days after surgery. Results of follow-up examination by the referring veterinarian 3 weeks after surgery were normal. Occasional vomiting approximately 2 months after surgery was managed medically. Fifteen months after surgery, the owners reported that the cat seemed completely normal in appearance and behavior.

Clinical Relevance—Pyloric stenosis should be considered a differential diagnosis for young cats with pyloric outflow obstruction. The cat of this report was treated successfully with a Billroth I procedure. Histologic examination and immunohistochemical analysis of the excised tissue showed the stenosis to be associated with hypertrophy of the tunica muscularis.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
History

A 1.5-year-old 4.38-kg (9.6-lb) neutered male domestic shorthair cat was referred because of a 3-day history of retching, ptyalism, and inappetence. Clinical signs were refractory to medical management (ie, administration of maropitant citrate, famotidine, and crystalloid fluid at unknown dosages).

At the time of hospital admission, the cat was alert, responsive, and euhydrated with a body condition score of 5/9. The cat had a body temperature of 38.7°C (101.6°F). The heart rate (170 beats/min; reference range, 120 to 140 beats/min) and respiratory rate (60 breaths/min; reference range, 16 to 40 breaths/min) were mildly high, likely attributable to stress or

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
History

A 10-year-old 454-kg (1,000-lb) Quarter Horse gelding was admitted to the hospital for evaluation of an intermittent lameness of the left forelimb of 1 year's duration. The horse had been rescued 15 months ago and the medical history prior to rescue was unknown. During the course of the past year, the horse had recurrent subsolar abscesses. The left forelimb lameness varied in severity from a grade 1/5 to a grade 4/5 to 5/5 on the American Association of Equine Practitioners lameness scale and often worsened when exercised. 1

On physical evaluation, there was no palpable joint effusion or soft

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

A 9-week-old 5.18-kg (11.4-lb) male Border Collie was referred for evaluation of right conduction deafness and reduced hearing of the left ear, diagnosed 3 weeks earlier via brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) testing with click and bone stimulation. The breeder had requested BAER evaluation of the entire litter at 48 days of age because of the breed's predilection for sensorineural deafness. In this dog, BAER testing of the right ear initially revealed deafness. However, bone stimulation testing revealed normal auditory responses consistent with right ear conduction deafness. Possible causes that were considered included structural middle ear disease or a lesion

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

An 8-year-old 6.4-kg (14.1-lb) neutered male Papillion was referred for neurologic evaluation of a sudden worsening of cervical hyperesthesia 3 days prior. Severe cervical hyperesthesia was first noted approximately 9 months prior. The referring veterinarian suspected cervical intervertebral disk disease and offered referral, but the owners opted for medical management at that time, which included administration of prednisolone a (0.4 mg/kg [0.18 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h for 3 months) and methocarbomal b (19.5 mg/kg [8.86 mg/lb], PO, q 8 h for 9 months), cage rest, and intermittent laser therapy. Over a 3-month period, medications were given inconsistently.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine brain region affinity for and retention of gadolinium in dogs after administration of gadodiamide and whether formalin fixation affects quantification.

ANIMALS 14 healthy dogs.

PROCEDURES 13 dogs received gadodiamide (range, 0.006 to 0.1 mmol/kg, IV); 1 control dog received a placebo. Dogs received gadodiamide 3 to 7 days (n = 8) or 9 hours (5) before euthanasia and sample collection. Brain regions were analyzed with inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and transmission electron microscopy. Associations between dose, time to euthanasia, and gadolinium retention quantities (before and after fixation in 5 dogs) were evaluated.

RESULTS Gadolinium retention was seen in all brain regions at all doses, except for the control dog. Exposure 3 to 7 days before euthanasia resulted in 1.7 to 162.5 ng of gadolinium/g of brain tissue (dose-dependent effect), with cerebellum, parietal lobe, and brainstem affinity. Exposure 9 hours before euthanasia resulted in 67.3 to 1,216.4 ng of gadolinium/g of brain tissue without dose dependency. Transmission electron microscopy revealed gadolinium in examined tissues. Fixation did not affect quantification in samples immersed for up to 69 days.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Gadodiamide exposure resulted in gadolinium retention in the brain of healthy dogs. Cerebellum, parietal lobe, and brainstem affinity was detected with dose dependency only in dogs exposed 3 to 7 days before euthanasia. Fixation had no effect on quantification when tissues were immersed for up to 69 days. Physiologic mechanisms for gadolinium retention remained unclear. The importance of gadolinium retention requires further investigation.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research