OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of repeated gas sterilization on rate of closure of ameroid ring constrictors in vitro.
SAMPLE Twenty-four 3.5-mm ameroid ring constrictors.
PROCEDURES Ameroid ring constrictors were allocated to 1 of 4 treatment groups (6/group) to undergo gas sterilization 0, 1, 5, or 10 times. After sterilization, constrictors were incubated in canine plasma at a protein concentration of 3 g/dL for 27 days. A digital camera was used to obtain images of the constrictors prior to and at various points during incubation, and lumen diameter was measured.
RESULTS Mean ± SD percentage of lumen closure for all groups of ameroid ring constrictors combined was 85.2 ± 1.6% at day 0 (prior to plasma incubation) and 95.4 ± 0.8% at day 27. Mean lumen area was 3.64 ± 0.43 mm2 (95% confidence interval, 2.67 to 4.77 mm2) at day 0 and 1.32 ± 0.25 mm2 (95% confidence interval, 0.76 to 2.04 mm2) at day 27. None of the ameroid ring constrictors had closed completely by day 27.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Overall closure rates for ameroid ring constrictors appeared to be unaffected by repeated gas sterilization up to 10 times. Findings suggested that veterinary surgeons can resterilize ameroid ring constrictors up to 10 times with confidence that ring properties would remain suitable for clinical use.
Objective—To determine the prevalence of individual anatomic components of brachycephalic airway obstructive syndrome (BAOS), including everted tonsils, and analyze the frequency with which each component occurs with 1 or more other components of BAOS in brachycephalic dogs.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—90 dogs with BAOS.
Procedures—Medical records were reviewed for signalment, clinical signs at time of admission, historical and physical examination findings, BAOS components found on laryngoscopic examination of the pharynx and larynx, surgical procedures performed, and perioperative complications.
Results—English Bulldogs (55/90 [61%]), Pugs (19/90 [21%]), and Boston Terriers (8/90 [9%]) were the most common breeds with BAOS. The most common components of BAOS were elongated soft palate (85/90 [94%]), stenotic nares (69/90 [77%]), everted laryngeal saccules (59/90 [66%]), and everted tonsils (50/90 [56%]). Dogs most commonly had 3 or 4 components of BAOS, with the most common combination being stenotic nares, elongated soft palate, everted laryngeal saccules, and everted tonsils. Dogs with stenotic nares were significantly more likely to have everted laryngeal saccules (50/69 [72%]), and dogs with everted laryngeal saccules were significantly more likely to have everted tonsils (39/59 [66%]). Postoperative surgical complications occurred in 12% (10/83) of dogs that received corrective surgery. No specific BAOS component made dogs more likely to have complications.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The prevalence of components of BAOS in brachycephalic dogs of this study differed from that reported previously, especially for everted tonsils. Thorough examination of the pharynx and larynx is necessary for detection of BAOS components.
Objective—To determine whether oxidative stress could be induced in canine chondrocytes in vitro.
Sample—Chondrocytes obtained from healthy adult mixed-breed dogs.
Procedures—Harvested chondrocytes were maintained at 37°C with 5% CO2 for 24 hours. To assess induction of oxidative stress, 2 stimuli were used: hydrogen peroxide and a combination of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). To determine the effect of hydrogen peroxide, a set of chondrocyte-seeded plates was incubated with control medium alone or hydrogen peroxide (100, 200, or 300μM) for 24 hours. For inhibition of oxidative stress, cells were incubated for 24 hours with N-acetylcysteine (NAC; 10mM) before exposure to hydrogen peroxide. Another set of chondrocyte-seeded plates was incubated with control medium alone or with IL-1β (10 ng/mL) and TNF-α (1 ng/mL) for 24 hours. Supernatants were obtained for measurement of prostaglandin E2 production, and cell lysates were used for measurement of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and reduced-glutathione (GSH) concentration.
Results—Chondrocytes responded to the oxidative stressor hydrogen peroxide with a decrease in SOD activity and GSH concentration. Exposure to the antioxidant NAC caused an increase in SOD activity in hydrogen peroxide–stressed chondrocytes to a degree comparable with that in chondrocytes not exposed to hydrogen peroxide. Similarly, NAC exposure induced significant increases in GSH concentration. Activation with IL-1β and TNF-α also led to a decrease in SOD activity and increase in prostaglandin E2 production.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Canine chondrocytes responded to the oxidative stress caused by exposure to hydrogen peroxide and cytokines. Exposure to oxidative stress inducers could result in perturbation of chondrocyte and cartilage homeostasis and could contribute to the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis. Use of antioxidants, on the other hand, may be helpful in the treatment of arthritic dogs.