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  • Author or Editor: Jennifer L. Lansdowne x
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Abstract

Objective—To compare laparoscopic dissection withlaparoscopic dissection combined with abdominal instillation of ferric hyaluronate gel for the treatment of experimentally induced adhesions in pony foals.

Animals—12 healthy pony foals.

Procedure—A serosal abrasion method was used to create adhesions at 4 sites on the jejunum (day 0). At day 7, laparoscopy was performed and the adhesions observed in each foal were recorded. In group-1 foals (n = 6), the adhesions were separated laparoscopically (treatment 1). In group-2 foals (n = 6), 300 mL of 0.5% ferric hyaluronate gel was infused into the abdomen after the adhesions were separated laparoscopically (treatment 2). At day 24, terminal laparoscopy was performed and the adhesions observed were recorded. Total number of adhesions within each group was compared between day 7 and 24. Data were analyzed to determine whether an association existed between the number of adhesions on day 24 and treatment type.

Results—At day 24, the number of adhesions was significantly decreased within each group, compared with the number of adhesions at day 7 (group-1 foals, 10 vs 22 adhesions; group-2 foals, 3 vs 20 adhesions). Treatment 1 was associated with a significantly higher number of adhesions at day 24, compared with treatment 2 (odds ratio, 4.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.03 to 23.02).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Abdominal instillation of 0.5% ferric hyaluronate gel after laparoscopic dissection was a more effective technique than laparoscopic dissection alone to treat experimentally induced adhesions in pony foals. Laparoscopic adhesiolysis following abdominal surgery in foals is a safe and effective technique. ( Am J Vet Res 2004;65:681–686)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the relationship between epidural cranial migration and injectate volume of an isotonic solution containing dye in laterally recumbent foal cadavers and evaluate the cranial migration and dermatome analgesia of an epidural dye solution during conditions of laparoscopy in foals.

Animals—19 foal cadavers and 8 pony foals.

Procedure—Foal cadavers received an epidural injection of dye solution (0.05, 0.1, 0.15, or 0.2 mL/kg) containing 1.2 mg of new methylene blue (NMB)/mL of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. Length of the dye column and number of intervertebral spaces cranial and caudal to the injection site were measured. Anesthetized foals received an epidural injection of dye solution (0.2 mL/kg) containing saline solution or 2% mepivacaine. Foals were placed in a 10o headdown position, and pneumoperitoneum was induced. Dermatome analgesia was determined by use of a described electrical stimulus technique. Foals were euthanatized, and length of the dye column was measured.

Results—Epidural cranial migration of dye solution in foal cadavers increased with increasing volume injected. No significant difference was found in epidural cranial migration of a dye solution (0.2 mL/kg) between anesthetized foals undergoing conditions of laparoscopy and foal cadavers in lateral recumbency. Further craniad migration of the dye column occurred than indicated by dermatome analgesia.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Epidural cranial migration increases with volume of injectate. On the basis of dermatome analgesia, an epidural injection of 2% mepivacaine (0.2 mL/kg) alone provides analgesia up to at least the caudal thoracic dermatome and could permit caudal laparoscopic surgical procedures in foals. ( Am J Vet Res 2005; 66:1324–1329)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine reasons for epidural catheter placement among horses examined at a veterinary teaching hospital, efficacy of epidural administration of analgesics, duration of catheter placement, reasons for catheter removal, and complications encountered.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—43 horses.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed.

Results—A total of 50 epidural catheters were placed in the 43 horses. Underlying conditions included fractures, lacerations, septic arthritis, myositis, perineal injuries, and cellulitis. Horses ranged from 2 to 21 years old and weighed between 365 and 795 kg (803 and 1,749 lb). Median duration of catheter placement was 96 hours (range, 1.5 to 480 hours). The response to epidural drug administration was reported as positive in 34 horses and negative in 4. There was no apparent response in 2 horses, and response could not be determined in 3. Three temporary patient-related complications associated with epidural catheter administration were observed. Technical problems associated with the epidural catheters included dislodgement of the catheter itself (7 catheters) or of the adapter or filter (5), obstruction (5), and leakage (5). Twenty-two catheters were removed because of resolution of the underlying condition, and 10 were removed because of complications. For 6 catheters, the reason for catheter removal was not recorded. The remaining 12 catheters were in place when the horses were euthanatized .

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that epidural catheterization can be used successfully for repeated epidural delivery of analgesics and anesthetics in horses with various clinical conditions. Complications associated with epidural catheters or epidural drug administration were infrequent and transient. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:1394–1398)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To describe a novel interlocking nail (ILN) and locking system and compare the torsional properties of constructs implanted with the novel ILN or a standard 8-mm ILN (ILN8) by use of a gap-fracture model.

Sample Population—8 synthetic specimens modeled from canine tibiae.

Procedures—An hourglass-shaped ILN featuring a tapered locking mechanism was designed. A synthetic bone model was custom-made to represent canine tibiae with a 50-mm comminuted diaphyseal fracture. Specimens were repaired by use of a novel ILN or an ILN8 with screws. Specimens were loaded for torsional measurements. Construct compliance and angular deformation were compared.

Results—Compliance of the ILN8 was significantly smaller than that of the novel ILN. Mean ± SD maximum angular deformation of the ILN8 construct (23.12 ± 0.65°) was significantly greater, compared with that of the novel ILN construct (9.45 ± 0.22°). Mean construct slack for the ILN8 group was 15.15 ± 0.63°, whereas no slack was detected for the novel ILN construct. Mean angular deformation for the ILN8 construct once slack was overcome was significantly less, compared with that of the novel ILN construct.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Analysis of results of this study suggests that engineering of the locking mechanism enabled the novel hourglass-shaped ILN system to eliminate torsional instability associated with the use of current ILNs. Considering the potential deleterious effect of torsional deformation on bone healing, the novel ILN may represent a biomechanically more effective fixation method, compared with current ILNs, for the treatment of comminuted diaphyseal fractures.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To assess the efficacy of laparoscopic adhesiolysis in the treatment of experimentally induced adhesions in foals.

Animals—8 healthy pony foals.

Procedure—Celiotomy was performed and adhesions created at the jejunoileal junction and at sites 0.5 and 1 m proximal to this junction, using a serosal abrasion method. Ten days after celiotomy, exploratory laparoscopy was performed. Laparoscopic adhesiolysis was performed in the treatment group only (4 foals, randomly selected). Thirty days after the exploratory laparoscopy, a final laparoscopic examination was performed, and the foals were euthanatized. The number and characteristics of abdominal adhesions were recorded during laparoscopy 10 and 30 days after celiotomy and during necropsy.

Results—At 30 days after celiotomy, the number of adhesions in the control group was significantly higher than the number in the treatment group. In the control group, all adhesions observed during the exploratory laparoscopy were still evident at the final laparoscopy and necropsy. In the treatment group, adhesions did not form again after separation. During final laparoscopy and necropsy, a focal adhesion between the omentum and site of the initial laparoscope portal was observed in 5 of 8 foals.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The serosal abrasion model is useful for studying abdominal adhesions in foals. Laparoscopic adhesiolysis was an effective technique to break down experimentally induced adhesions in the early maturation stage of formation in pony foals. Studies are required to investigate prevention of de novo adhesions at the laparoscope portal sites. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:289–294)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare structural properties of a plate-rod combination–bone construct (PRCbc) and interlocking nail–bone construct (ILNbc) by use of an experimentally induced gap fracture in canine tibiae.

Sample Population—12 paired canine tibiae.

Procedure—Specimens were implanted with a plate-rod combination consisting of a 3.5-mm, limited-contact, dynamic-compression plate combined with an intramedullary rod or 6-mm interlocking nail. Ostectomy (removal of 10-mm segment) was performed. Paired constructs were loaded for bending, compression, or torsion measurements (4 constructs/group). Compliance was determined by fitting regression lines to the load-position curves at low (initial compliance) and high (terminal compliance) loads.

Results—Bending compliances did not differ significantly between constructs. For the ILNbc, initial compliance was greater than terminal compliance in compression and torsion. Initial compliance and terminal compliance for the PRCbc were similar in compression and torsion. Initial compliance in compression and torsion was greater for the ILNbc, compared with initial compliance for the PRCbc. Maximum deformations in bending and compression were similar between constructs; however, maximum torsional angle was significantly greater for the ILNbc, compared with values for the PRCbc.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The study documented that for an experimentally induced gap fracture in canine tibiae, a plate-rod combination is a significantly less compliant fixation method in torsion and compression, compared with an interlocking nail. Considering the deleterious effects of torsional deformation on bone healing, a plate-rod combination may represent a biomechanically superior fixation method, compared with an interlocking nail, for the treatment of dogs with comminuted tibial diaphyseal fractures. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1536–1543)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research