Objective—To compare laparoscopic dissection withlaparoscopic
dissection combined with abdominal
instillation of ferric hyaluronate gel for the treatment
of experimentally induced adhesions in pony foals.
Animals—12 healthy pony foals.
Procedure—A serosal abrasion method was used to
create adhesions at 4 sites on the jejunum (day 0). At
day 7, laparoscopy was performed and the adhesions
observed in each foal were recorded. In group-1 foals
(n = 6), the adhesions were separated laparoscopically
(treatment 1). In group-2 foals (n = 6), 300 mL of
0.5% ferric hyaluronate gel was infused into the
abdomen after the adhesions were separated laparoscopically
(treatment 2). At day 24, terminal
laparoscopy was performed and the adhesions
observed were recorded. Total number of adhesions
within each group was compared between day 7 and
24. Data were analyzed to determine whether an
association existed between the number of adhesions
on day 24 and treatment type.
Results—At day 24, the number of adhesions was
significantly decreased within each group, compared
with the number of adhesions at day 7 (group-1 foals,
10 vs 22 adhesions; group-2 foals, 3 vs 20 adhesions).
Treatment 1 was associated with a significantly higher
number of adhesions at day 24, compared with
treatment 2 (odds ratio, 4.54; 95% confidence interval,
1.03 to 23.02).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Abdominal
instillation of 0.5% ferric hyaluronate gel after laparoscopic
dissection was a more effective technique
than laparoscopic dissection alone to treat experimentally
induced adhesions in pony foals.
Laparoscopic adhesiolysis following abdominal
surgery in foals is a safe and effective technique. ( Am J Vet Res 2004;65:681–686)
Objective—To determine the relationship between
epidural cranial migration and injectate volume of an
isotonic solution containing dye in laterally recumbent
foal cadavers and evaluate the cranial migration and
dermatome analgesia of an epidural dye solution during
conditions of laparoscopy in foals.
Animals—19 foal cadavers and 8 pony foals.
Procedure—Foal cadavers received an epidural
injection of dye solution (0.05, 0.1, 0.15, or 0.2 mL/kg)
containing 1.2 mg of new methylene blue (NMB)/mL
of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. Length of the dye column
and number of intervertebral spaces cranial and
caudal to the injection site were measured.
Anesthetized foals received an epidural injection of
dye solution (0.2 mL/kg) containing saline solution or
2% mepivacaine. Foals were placed in a 10o headdown
position, and pneumoperitoneum was induced.
Dermatome analgesia was determined by use of a
described electrical stimulus technique. Foals were
euthanatized, and length of the dye column was measured.
Results—Epidural cranial migration of dye solution in
foal cadavers increased with increasing volume injected.
No significant difference was found in epidural
cranial migration of a dye solution (0.2 mL/kg)
between anesthetized foals undergoing conditions of
laparoscopy and foal cadavers in lateral recumbency.
Further craniad migration of the dye column occurred
than indicated by dermatome analgesia.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Epidural cranial
migration increases with volume of injectate. On
the basis of dermatome analgesia, an epidural injection
of 2% mepivacaine (0.2 mL/kg) alone provides
analgesia up to at least the caudal thoracic dermatome
and could permit caudal laparoscopic surgical
procedures in foals. ( Am J Vet Res 2005; 66:1324–1329)
Objective—To determine reasons for epidural catheter
placement among horses examined at a veterinary
teaching hospital, efficacy of epidural administration of
analgesics, duration of catheter placement, reasons for
catheter removal, and complications encountered.
Procedure—Medical records were reviewed.
Results—A total of 50 epidural catheters were placed
in the 43 horses. Underlying conditions included fractures,
lacerations, septic arthritis, myositis, perineal
injuries, and cellulitis. Horses ranged from 2 to 21 years
old and weighed between 365 and 795 kg (803 and
1,749 lb). Median duration of catheter placement was
96 hours (range, 1.5 to 480 hours). The response to
epidural drug administration was reported as positive in
34 horses and negative in 4. There was no apparent
response in 2 horses, and response could not be determined
in 3. Three temporary patient-related complications
associated with epidural catheter administration
were observed. Technical problems associated with
the epidural catheters included dislodgement of the
catheter itself (7 catheters) or of the adapter or filter (5),
obstruction (5), and leakage (5). Twenty-two catheters
were removed because of resolution of the underlying
condition, and 10 were removed because of complications.
For 6 catheters, the reason for catheter removal
was not recorded. The remaining 12 catheters were in
place when the horses were euthanatized .
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that epidural catheterization can be used successfully
for repeated epidural delivery of analgesics and
anesthetics in horses with various clinical conditions.
Complications associated with epidural catheters or
epidural drug administration were infrequent and transient.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:1394–1398)
Objective—To describe a novel interlocking nail (ILN) and locking system and compare the torsional properties of constructs implanted with the novel ILN or a standard 8-mm ILN (ILN8) by use of a gap-fracture model.
Sample Population—8 synthetic specimens modeled from canine tibiae.
Procedures—An hourglass-shaped ILN featuring a tapered locking mechanism was designed. A synthetic bone model was custom-made to represent canine tibiae with a 50-mm comminuted diaphyseal fracture. Specimens were repaired by use of a novel ILN or an ILN8 with screws. Specimens were loaded for torsional measurements. Construct compliance and angular deformation were compared.
Results—Compliance of the ILN8 was significantly smaller than that of the novel ILN. Mean ± SD maximum angular deformation of the ILN8 construct (23.12 ± 0.65°) was significantly greater, compared with that of the novel ILN construct (9.45 ± 0.22°). Mean construct slack for the ILN8 group was 15.15 ± 0.63°, whereas no slack was detected for the novel ILN construct. Mean angular deformation for the ILN8 construct once slack was overcome was significantly less, compared with that of the novel ILN construct.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Analysis of results of this study suggests that engineering of the locking mechanism enabled the novel hourglass-shaped ILN system to eliminate torsional instability associated with the use of current ILNs. Considering the potential deleterious effect of torsional deformation on bone healing, the novel ILN may represent a biomechanically more effective fixation method, compared with current ILNs, for the treatment of comminuted diaphyseal fractures.
Objective—To assess the efficacy of laparoscopic
adhesiolysis in the treatment of experimentally
induced adhesions in foals.
Animals—8 healthy pony foals.
Procedure—Celiotomy was performed and adhesions
created at the jejunoileal junction and at sites
0.5 and 1 m proximal to this junction, using a serosal
abrasion method. Ten days after celiotomy, exploratory
laparoscopy was performed. Laparoscopic adhesiolysis
was performed in the treatment group only (4
foals, randomly selected). Thirty days after the
exploratory laparoscopy, a final laparoscopic examination
was performed, and the foals were euthanatized.
The number and characteristics of abdominal adhesions
were recorded during laparoscopy 10 and 30
days after celiotomy and during necropsy.
Results—At 30 days after celiotomy, the number of
adhesions in the control group was significantly higher
than the number in the treatment group. In the
control group, all adhesions observed during the
exploratory laparoscopy were still evident at the final
laparoscopy and necropsy. In the treatment group,
adhesions did not form again after separation. During
final laparoscopy and necropsy, a focal adhesion
between the omentum and site of the initial laparoscope
portal was observed in 5 of 8 foals.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The serosal
abrasion model is useful for studying abdominal adhesions
in foals. Laparoscopic adhesiolysis was an
effective technique to break down experimentally
induced adhesions in the early maturation stage of
formation in pony foals. Studies are required to investigate
prevention of de novo adhesions at the laparoscope
portal sites. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:289–294)
Objective—To compare structural properties of a
plate-rod combination–bone construct (PRCbc) and
interlocking nail–bone construct (ILNbc) by use of an
experimentally induced gap fracture in canine tibiae.
Sample Population—12 paired canine tibiae.
Procedure—Specimens were implanted with a plate-rod
combination consisting of a 3.5-mm, limited-contact,
dynamic-compression plate combined with an
intramedullary rod or 6-mm interlocking nail.
Ostectomy (removal of 10-mm segment) was performed.
Paired constructs were loaded for bending,
compression, or torsion measurements (4 constructs/group). Compliance was determined by fitting
regression lines to the load-position curves at low (initial
compliance) and high (terminal compliance) loads.
Results—Bending compliances did not differ significantly
between constructs. For the ILNbc, initial compliance
was greater than terminal compliance in compression
and torsion. Initial compliance and terminal compliance
for the PRCbc were similar in compression and torsion.
Initial compliance in compression and torsion was
greater for the ILNbc, compared with initial compliance
for the PRCbc. Maximum deformations in bending and
compression were similar between constructs; however,
maximum torsional angle was significantly greater for
the ILNbc, compared with values for the PRCbc.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The study
documented that for an experimentally induced gap
fracture in canine tibiae, a plate-rod combination is a
significantly less compliant fixation method in torsion
and compression, compared with an interlocking nail.
Considering the deleterious effects of torsional deformation
on bone healing, a plate-rod combination may
represent a biomechanically superior fixation method,
compared with an interlocking nail, for the treatment
of dogs with comminuted tibial diaphyseal fractures.
(Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1536–1543)