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Abstract

Objective—To determine whether ultrasonography would be useful in the diagnosis of right dorsal colitis in horses.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—5 horses with right dorsal colitis and 15 healthy adult horses.

Procedure—Mural thickness and appearance of the right dorsal colon were determined from ultrasonographic images obtained at right intercostal spaces 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14.

Results—The right dorsal colon could be imaged most consistently at the right 11th, 12th, and 13th intercostal spaces, below the margin of the lung and axial to the liver. Mural thickness measured from ultrasonographic images was significantly greater in horses with right dorsal colitis than in healthy horses. The right dorsal colon in affected horses had a prominent hypoechoic layer associated with submucosal edema and inflammatory infiltrates. Successful treatment of 1 horse with right dorsal colitis was associated with a decrease in mural thickness coincident with an increase in serum albumin and total protein concentrations and weight gain. A decrease in mural thickness was also observed in a second horse treated for right dorsal colitis that was not associated with healing of the right dorsal colon or an increase in serum albumin concentration but rather thinning of a segment of the right dorsal colon that eventually ruptured.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that ultrasonographic measurement of mural thickness and evaluation of the appearance of the right dorsal colon may be useful in the diagnosis of right dorsal colitis in horses. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:1248–1251)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To investigate effects of lidocaine hydrochloride administered IV on mucosal inflammation in ischemia-injured jejunum of horses treated with flunixin meglumine.

Animals—24 horses.

Procedures—Horses received saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (SS; 1 mL/50 kg, IV [1 dose]), flunixin meglumine (1 mg/kg, IV, q 12 h), lidocaine (bolus [1.3 mg/kg] and constant rate infusion [0.05 mg/kg/min], IV, during and after recovery from surgery), or both flunixin and lidocaine (n = 6/group). During surgery, blood flow was occluded for 2 hours in 2 sections of jejunum in each horse. Uninjured and ischemia-injured jejunal specimens were collected after the ischemic period and after euthanasia 18 hours later for histologic assessment and determination of cyclooxygenase (COX) expression (via western blot procedures). Plasma samples collected prior to (baseline) and 8 hours after the ischemic period were analyzed for prostanoid concentrations.

Results—Immediately after the ischemic period, COX-2 expression in horses treated with lidocaine alone was significantly less than expression in horses treated with SS or flunixin alone. Eighteen hours after the ischemic period, mucosal neutrophil counts in horses treated with flunixin alone were significantly higher than counts in other treatment groups. Compared with baseline plasma concentrations, postischemia prostaglandin E2 metabolite and thromboxane B2 concentrations increased in horses treated with SS and in horses treated with SS or lidocaine alone, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In horses with ischemia-injured jejunum, lidocaine administered IV reduced plasma prostaglandin E2 metabolite concentration and mucosal COX-2 expression. Coadministration of lidocaine with flunixin ameliorated the flunixin-induced increase in mucosal neutrophil counts.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate the association of demographic, career, and lifestyle factors with resilience and the association of resilience with mental health outcomes in Canadian veterinarians.

SAMPLE

1,130 veterinarians in clinical practice across Canada.

PROCEDURES

An online questionnaire was used to collect participant data and included 5 validated psychometric scales to evaluate resilience (through the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale [CD-RISC]), perceived stress (through the Perceived Stress Scale), emotional distress (through the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), burnout (through the Maslach Burnout Inventory), and secondary traumatic stress (through the Professional Quality of Life Scale). A multivariable linear regression model was used to investigate associations between CD-RISC scores and demographic, career, and lifestyle characteristics. Univariable linear regression models were used to assess the relationship between resilience scores and other mental health outcomes.

RESULTS

The strongest positive association was between CD-RISC score and overall health. The level of satisfaction with support from friends and workplace resources had positive associations with the CD-RISC score. The presence of mental illness had the strongest negative association with the CD-RISC score. Being married, working in a small animal practice, or having an associate role were negatively associated with the CD-RISC score. The CD-RISC score had negative associations with scores for perceived stress, anxiety, depression, burnout, and secondary traumatic stress.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Models provided evidence for the role of resilience in protecting against negative mental health outcomes in veterinarians. Both personal and workplace factors were associated with resilience, presenting opportunities for intervention at each of these levels.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To estimate the prevalence of perceived stress, burnout, depression, anxiety, compassion fatigue, compassion satisfaction, resilience, and suicidal ideation among Canadian veterinarians and compare results with those for other populations.

SAMPLE

1,403 veterinarians across Canada.

PROCEDURES

The study represented a cross-sectional online survey. The questionnaire incorporated validated psychometric instruments to measure perceived stress, burnout, depression, anxiety, compassion fatigue, and resilience as well as questions regarding suicidal ideation. Means and relative proportions in categories of severity were compared between genders as well as with normative data for the general population and results for veterinarians in the United Kingdom.

RESULTS

Approximately 10% of Canadian veterinarians (n = 1,403) completed the survey. Relative to the general population, survey participants had significantly higher mean scores for subscales of burnout and compassion fatigue, anxiety, and depression and significantly lower mean resilience. Relative to males, females had significantly higher mean scores for perceived stress, emotional exhaustion, burnout, secondary traumatic stress, anxiety, and depression and significantly lower mean resilience. Participants also had higher mean scores for anxiety and depression relative to results for United Kingdom veterinarians. The 12-month prevalence of suicidal ideation for participants was 26.2%, which was substantially higher than the estimated prevalence for the general international population (2.1% to 10.0%).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggested that the mental health of Canadian veterinarians was poor, compared with the mental health of the general population. These results should serve as a call to action for tools and educational programs directed at supporting veterinarian mental wellness in Canada, with special attention paid to the disparate needs of the genders.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association