Objective—To investigate contrast-enhanced ultrasonography as a minimally invasive method for the subjective and quantitative assessment of pancreatic and duodenal perfusion in healthy adult dogs, with reference to perfusion in adjacent liver tissue.
Animals—8 clinically normal adult dogs.
Procedures—Contrast-enhanced ultrasonograms of the right pancreatic limb, proximal portion of the descending duodenum, and adjacent liver were acquired after IV administration of a microbubble contrast medium. Following subjective evaluation, quantitative time-intensity curves were generated from regions of interest in the pancreas, duodenum, and liver. Five contrast medium characteristics representing perfusion parameters were determined for each organ and used for statistical analysis: interval to arrival, inflow rate, peak intensity (PI), time of peak intensity (TPI), and outflow rate.
Results—Significant associations between pancreatic and duodenal values were found for interval to contrast medium arrival, PI, TPI, and outflow rate. Pancreatic and duodenal inflow rates were not correlated. Inflow and outflow rates were significantly faster and TPI significantly shorter for the pancreas and duodenum, compared with values for the liver. There was no significant difference among all 3 organs for interval to arrival and PI of contrast medium. Subjective evaluation findings corresponded to quantitative analysis results.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that contrast-enhanced ultrasonography may be a useful, minimally invasive method for evaluating pancreatic and duodenal perfusion in dogs. The data from healthy dogs reported here could aid in the assessment of pancreatic and duodenal conditions and their response to medical treatment.
Objective—To evaluate with CT the efficacy of various combinations of firearms and ammunitions to penetrate and disrupt the brain tissue of cadaveric heads of feedlot steers.
Sample—42 fresh cadaveric heads of 12- to 18-month-old Bos taurus steers.
Procedures—For each of 7 combinations of firearms and ammunitions (.22-caliber rifle firing a long rifle 30-grain plated lead solid- or hollow-point round, .223-caliber carbine firing a 50-grain ballistic-tip round, 9-mm pistol firing a 124-grain total metal jacket round, .45-caliber automatic Colt pistol [ACP] firing a 230-grain full metal jacket round, and 12-gauge shotgun firing a 2.75-inch 1.25-ounce No. 4 birdshot shell or a 1-ounce rifled slug), 6 cadaveric heads were shot at an identical distance (3 m), angle, and anatomic location. Heads were scanned with third-generation CT, and images were evaluated to determine extent of penetration, projectile fragmentation, cranial fracture, and likelihood of instantaneous death (≥ 30% destruction of brain tissue or a brainstem lesion).
Results—41 of 42 skulls were penetrated by the projectile. Instantaneous death was considered a likely consequence for 83% (25/30) of heads shot with a rifle-fired .22-caliber solid-point round, pistol-fired .45-caliber ACP round, carbine-fired .223-caliber round, and shotgun-fired birdshot and slug. Of the 18 heads shot with pistol-fired 9-mm and .45-caliber ACP rounds and rifle-fired .22-caliber hollow-point rounds, only 6 had brainstem lesions.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that gunshots delivered by all firearm-ammunition combinations except rifle-fired .22-caliber hollow-point rounds and pistol-fired 9-mm rounds were viable options for euthanasia of feedlot cattle.