Objective—To determine current practices regarding
use of antimicrobials in equine patients undergoing
surgery because of colic at veterinary teaching hospitals.
Sample Population—Diplomates of the American
College of Veterinary Surgeons performing equine
surgery at veterinary teaching hospitals in the United
Procedure—A Web-based questionnaire was developed,
and 85 surgeons were asked to participate. The
first part of the survey requested demographic information
and information about total number of colic
surgeries performed at the hospital, number of colic
surgeries performed by the respondent, and whether
the hospital had written guidelines for antimicrobial
drug use. The second part pertained to nosocomial
infections. The third part provided several case scenarios
and asked respondents whether they would
use antimicrobial drugs in these instances.
Results—Thirty-four (40%) surgeons responded to
the questionnaire. Respondents indicated that most
equine patients undergoing surgery because of colic
at veterinary teaching hospitals in the United States
received antimicrobial drugs. Drugs that were used
were similar for the various hospitals that were represented,
and for the most part, the drugs that were
used were fairly uniform irrespective of the type of
colic, whereas the duration of treatment varied with
the type of colic and the surgical findings. The combination
of potassium penicillin and gentamicin was the
most commonly used treatment.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of
this study document the implementation of recommendations
by several authors in veterinary texts that
antimicrobial drugs be administered perioperatively in
equine patients with colic that are undergoing surgery.
However, the need for long-term antimicrobial drug
treatment in equine patients with colic is unknown. (J
Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:1359–1365)
Objective—To determine whether autologous jugular veins provide functional grafts with high 30-day patency rates in an experimental model of systemic-to-pulmonary shunting performed with a modified Blalock-Taussig procedure.
Animals—15 healthy Beagles.
Procedure—A segment of the left jugular vein was implanted between the left subclavian and pulmonary arteries. Echocardiograms were obtained prior to surgery, at day 4 to 7, and at day 30 after surgery. Selective angiograms were performed immediately after surgery and on day 30. Oximetric shunt calculations were made via terminal angiography prior to euthanasia. Gross and histologic evaluations of the grafts were conducted.
Results—Grafts were patent in 12 of 15 dogs 30 days after surgery as assessed via auscultation, color Doppler ultrasonography, angiography, and histologic examination. Echocardiographic analysis revealed compensatory eccentric left ventricular hypertrophy. Mean pulmonary-to-systemic flow ratio was 1.5:1. Histologic evidence of endothelialization of the anastomotic sites and vein graft arterialization was detectable at 30 days.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Autologous jugular vein grafts were effectively used to create a systemic-to-pulmonary shunt by use of a modified Blalock-Taussig procedure. High patency, ready accessibility, low cost, and theoretical adaptative remodeling during patient growth make autologous jugular vein grafts a valuable alternative to synthetic materials.