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Abstract

Objective—To determine plasma disposition after dermal application of a liposome-encapsulated formulation of lidocaine in cats.

Animals—6 healthy adult cats with a mean (± SD) body weight of 4.1 ± 0.44 kg.

Procedure—CBC determination and biochemical analysis of blood samples were performed for all cats. Cats were anesthetized by use of isoflurane, and catheters were placed IV in a central vein. The next day, blood samples were obtained from the catheters before and 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 24 hours after applying a 4% liposome-encapsulated lidocaine cream (15 mg/kg) to a clipped area over the cephalic vein. Plasma concentrations of lidocaine were analyzed with a high-performance liquid chromatography assay.

Results—Two cats had minimal transdermal absorption of lidocaine, with lidocaine concentrations below the sensitivity of the assay at all but 1 or 2 time points. In the other 4 cats, the median maximum plasma concentration was 149.5 ng/ml, the median time to maximum plasma concentration was 2 hours, and the median area under the concentration versus time curve from zero to infinity was 1014.5 ng·h/ml.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Maximum plasma concentrations of lidocaine remained substantially below toxic plasma concentrations for cats. On the basis of these data, topical administration of a liposome-encapsulated lidocaine formulation at a dose of 15 mg/kg appears to be safe for use in healthy adult cats. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1309–1312)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine effects of hip joint osteoarthritis on radiographic measures of hip joint laxity and congruence.

Design—Longitudinal study.

Animals—40 Labrador Retrievers.

Procedures—Dogs were assigned to 2 groups based on radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis. Dogs in the osteoarthritis group were free of osteoarthritis at initial radiographic evaluation (t1) and developed osteoarthritis by a subsequent radiographic evaluation (t2). Dogs in the nonosteoarthritis group had no radiographic osteoarthritis at either evaluation. Hip joint laxity was quantified by use of the distraction index (DI) from a distraction radiographic view and use of the Norberg angle (NA) from a ventrodorsal hip-extended radiographic view. The compression index (CI) from a compression radiographic view was used as a measure of joint congruence (concentricity).

Results—Hip joint laxity (NA or DI) did not change over time in the nonosteoarthritis group. Mean hip joint laxity (NA and DI) for the osteoarthritis group was greater at t1 than for the nonosteoarthritis group. With the onset of osteoarthritis, mean NA decreased significantly and mean CI increased significantly, but mean DI remained unchanged.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—No radiographic evidence for compensatory hip joint tightening associated with osteoarthritis was detected. Hip-extended radiography revealed that hip joints got looser with osteoarthritis and NA decreased. Hip joint laxity (DI) on distraction radiographs was unchanged by the onset of osteoarthritis and remained constant in the osteoarthritis and nonosteoarthritis groups at both evaluations. However, the CI increased with osteoarthritis, as reflected in nonzero indices (incongruence). The CI may be a valid marker for early hip joint osteoarthritis.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate and compare postoperative analgesic effects of grapiprant and carprofen in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

ANIMALS

42 sexually intact female healthy dogs (< 35 kg and 0.5 to 7 years old) were enrolled.

PROCEDURES

In a masked, randomized, noninferiority clinical trial, dogs received either 2 mg/kg of grapiprant or 4.4 mg/kg of carprofen orally 2 hours prior to ovariohysterectomy. Postoperative pain was assessed using the Glasgow Composite Pain Scale–Short Form (GCPS-SF) at extubation and 2, 4, 6, 8, 18, and 24 hours postextubation and compared to baseline. After each pain scoring, mechanical nociceptive testing with von Frey monofilaments (vF) was performed to assess hyperalgesia. Hydromorphone (0.05 mg/kg, IM) was administered to any dog with a GCPS-SF of ≥ 5/24. The noninferiority limit (NI) for the GCPS-SF was Δ = 3. The NI for vF was Δ = –0.2. Following noninferiority, a mixed-effect ANOVA and post hoc comparisons were made with the Tukey correction method (P < .05).

RESULTS

3 dogs required rescue analgesia and were excluded from statistical analysis. Of the remaining 39 dogs, the upper CI for GCPS-SF was below the NI of 3 and the lower CI for vF was greater than the NI of –0.2, indicating noninferiority of grapiprant as compared to carprofen. There was no difference between treatment (P = .89) nor treatment by time (P = .62) for GCPS-SF. There was no difference between groups at any time point or over time when vF were used.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Our study results support the use of grapiprant as an analgesic alternative to carprofen in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare the efficacy of a Salmonella bacterin and a modified live Salmonella ser. Choleraesuis vaccine on a commercial dairy.

Animals—450 cows in late gestation and 80 calves.

Procedure—Group-1 cows (n = 150) were vaccinated once with a modified live S Choleraesuis (serogroup C1) strain 54 (SC54) vaccine, group-2 cows (150) were vaccinated on enrollment and 30 days later with a Salmonella ser. Montevideo (serogroup C1) bacterin, and group-3 cows (150) served as unvaccinated controls. One gallon of colostrum harvested from the first 80 cows to calve was fed to each calf. Outcome assessments included fecal shedding of Salmonella spp for the first 10 days after parturition (cows) or birth (calves), milk production, involuntary culling rate, mastitis incidence, antimicrobial use, and mortality rate.

Results—Salmonellae were isolated from 306 of 309 (99%) cows and 64 of 74 (86.5%) calves. Shedding frequency was less in SC54-vaccinated cows and calves that received colostrum from those cows, compared with the other groups, and vaccination was specifically associated with less shedding of serogroup C1 salmonellae. Production data were similar among groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Vaccination of pregnant cows with an autogenous Salmonella bacterin had no effect on fecal shedding of salmonellae, whereas vaccination with a modified live S Choleraesuis vaccine reduced the frequency of fecal shedding of serogroup C1 salmonellae during the peripartum period. A commercial S Choleraesuis vaccine licensed for use in swine may be more efficacious than autogenous Salmonella bacterins on dairies infected with serogroup C1 salmonellae. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1897–1902)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Recent state and federal legislative actions and current recommendations from the World Health Organization seem to suggest that, when it comes to antimicrobial stewardship, use of antimicrobials for prevention, control, or treatment of disease can be ranked in order of appropriateness, which in turn has led, in some instances, to attempts to limit or specifically oppose the routine use of medically important antimicrobials for prevention of disease. In contrast, the AVMA Committee on Antimicrobials believes that attempts to evaluate the degree of antimicrobial stewardship on the basis of therapeutic intent are misguided and that use of antimicrobials for prevention, control, or treatment of disease may comply with the principles of antimicrobial stewardship. It is important that veterinarians and animal caretakers are clear about the reason they may be administering antimicrobials to animals in their care. Concise definitions of prevention, control, and treatment of individuals and populations are necessary to avoid confusion and to help veterinarians clearly communicate their intentions when prescribing or recommending antimicrobial use.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Supply chain issues disrupt veterinary care and cause downstream consequences that alter the practice of veterinary medicine. Antimicrobials are just 1 class of pharmaceuticals that have been impacted by supply chain issues over the last couple of years. Since February 2021, 2 sponsors/manufacturers of penicillin products have reported shortages in the active pharmaceutical ingredient. With the release of the 2021 Summary Report on Antimicrobials Sold or Distributed for Use in Food-Producing Animals by the FDA, a key finding was a 19% decrease in penicillin sales and distribution from 2020 to 2021. Herein, we provide our clinicians’ professional perspective regarding how drug shortages, specifically that of penicillin, might contribute to misconstrued patterns in antimicrobial use and what can be done by veterinarians and the FDA to minimize the impact of an antimicrobial drug shortage on animal health and well-being.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association