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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the in vitro effects of selected growth factors on fibrochondrogenesis by synovial membrane cells from nonosteoarthritic (normal) and osteoarthritic joints of dogs.

Animals—5 dogs with secondary osteoarthritis of shoulder or stifle joints and 6 dogs with normal joints.

Procedures—Synovial membrane cells were harvested from normal and osteoarthritic joints and cultured in monolayer with or without (control) basic fibroblast growth factor, transforming growth factor-β1, and insulin-like growth factor-1. In the cultured cells, fibrochondrogenesis was measured by use of a real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay to determine relative expressions of collagen I, collagen II, and aggrecan genes and of 3 genes involved in embryonic chondrogenesis: Sry-type homeobox protein-9 (SOX-9), frizzled-motif associated with bone development (Frzb), and regulator of G-protein signaling-10 (RGS-10). Tissue collagen content was measured via a hydroxyproline assay, and sulfated glycosaminoglycan content was measured via a 1,9-dimethylmethylene blue assay. Cellularity was determined via a double-stranded DNA assay. Immunohistochemical analysis for collagens I and II was also performed.

Results—In vitro collagen synthesis was enhanced by growth factor stimulation. Although osteoarthritic-joint synoviocytes could undergo a fibrocartilage-like phenotypic shift, their production of collagenous extracellular matrix was less than that of normal-joint synoviocytes. Gene expressions of SOX-9 and RGS-10 were highest in the osteoarthritic-joint cells; Frzb expression was highest in growth factor treated cells.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Autogenous synovium may be a viable cell source for meniscal tissue engineering. Gene expressions of SOX-9 and RGS-10 may be potential future targets for in vitro enhancement of chondrogenesis.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To assess clinical effects of an omega-3 fatty acid and protein-enriched diet, physical rehabilitation, or both in dogs following tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) and arthroscopic surgery for cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) disease.

DESIGN Randomized, prospective clinical trial.

ANIMALS 48 dogs with unilateral CCL disease.

PROCEDURES Dogs were randomly assigned to receive a dry omega-3 fatty acid and protein-enriched dog food formulated to support joint health (test food [TF]), a dry food formulated for maintenance of adult dogs (control food [CF]), TF plus rehabilitation (TF-R), or CF plus rehabilitation (CF-R). Data collected over 6 months included body weight, body condition score, ground reaction force data, tibial plateau angle, limb circumference measurements, subjective pain and lameness scores assigned by surgeons and dog owners, and daily activity measured by accelerometry.

RESULTS Peak vertical force and vertical impulse were greater after surgery for dogs in the TF groups than in the CF groups; peak vertical force was greater after surgery in dogs that underwent rehabilitation than in those that did not. Owner scores indicated lower frequencies of lameness and signs of pain during some activities for the TF group, compared with other groups, and for the TF-R and CF-R groups, compared with the CF group. Sedentary time decreased and time spent in light-to-moderate or vigorous activity increased in all groups over time. Rehabilitation was significantly associated with greater time spent in light-to-moderate activity, regardless of diet.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Feeding the TF and providing physical rehabilitation during the first 6 months after TPLO were associated with improvements in some indices of clinical outcome and function in dogs. Significant interactions between time and some outcome variables were observed, indicating further research is warranted.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine outcome of and complications associated with cricopharyngeal myotomy or myectomy for treatment of cricopharyngeal dysphagia (CPD) in dogs

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—14 dogs.

Procedure—Medical records of dogs with CPD that underwent cricopharyngeal myotomy or myectomy were examined. Follow-up information was obtained through telephone interviews with owners and referring veterinarians and clinical examinations when feasible.

Results—16 surgical procedures were performed on the 14 dogs. Dysphagia was completely resolved immediately after surgery in 1 dog, and clinical signs did not recur (follow-up time of 8 years); a second dog also had immediate complete resolution of dysphagia, but follow-up time was only 10 days. Three dogs had transient complete resolution with a mean time to recurrence of dysphagia of 12.3 weeks (range, 2 to 36 weeks). Three dogs had permanent partial resolution. Six dogs had no improvement after surgery. Eight of the 14 dogs were euthanatized because of problems related to CPD, including persistent dysphagia (n = 8) and aspiration pneumonia (5).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The failure rate for dogs undergoing surgical treatment of CPD may be high, particularly if concurrent aspiration pneumonia or malnutrition is not addressed prior to surgery. For those dogs with concurrent diseases, more aggressive medical management, such as enteral tube feeding, may be warranted rather than surgery. In dogs with CPD complicated by other anatomic or functional conditions, such as myasthenia gravis, laryngeal paralysis, and esophageal stricture, surgery may also not be indicated. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:1462–1468)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of an omega-3 fatty acid and protein–enriched diet, physical rehabilitation, or both on radiographic findings and markers of synovial inflammation in dogs following tibial plateau leveling osteotomy and arthroscopic surgery for treatment of cranial cruciate ligament disease.

DESIGN Randomized, prospective clinical trial.

ANIMALS 48 dogs with unilateral cranial cruciate ligament disease.

PROCEDURES Dogs were randomly assigned to receive a dry omega-3 fatty acid and protein–enriched dog food formulated to support joint health (test food [TF]), a dry food formulated for adult canine maintenance (control food [CF]), TF plus rehabilitation, or CF plus rehabilitation after surgery. Synovial fluid prostaglandin (PG) E2 and interleukin-1β concentrations, radiographic osteoarthritis scores, osteotomy site healing, and patellar ligament thickness were assessed at predetermined time points up to 6 months after surgery.

RESULTS Dogs that received CF had significantly higher PGE2 concentrations over time following surgery than did dogs that received TF, regardless of rehabilitation status. Synovial fluid interleukin-1β concentrations did not change over time in any groups. Diet and rehabilitation were both associated with osteoarthritis scores, with significantly lower scores over time for dogs that received TF versus CF and for dogs that underwent rehabilitation versus those that did not. Proportions of dogs with complete osteotomy healing 8 and 24 weeks after surgery were significantly lower for dogs that received TF than for dogs that received CF, regardless of rehabilitation status.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that feeding the TF can result in lower synovial fluid PGE2 concentrations and that both the TF and rehabilitation can reduce progression of osteoarthritis in the 6 months following tibial plateau leveling osteotomy; clinical relevance of slower osteotomy healing in dogs fed the TF was unclear.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association