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Abstract

Objective—To determine clinical features of horses with bacterial meningitis or brain abscesses secondary to infectious disease processes involving the head.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—7 adult horses.

Procedure—Medical records of Tufts University, the University of Pennsylvania, and the Livestock Disease Diagnostic Center (Lexington, Ky) were reviewed to identify adult (> 12 months old) horses in which a postmortem diagnosis of bacterial meningitis or brain abscess had been made. Horses were included in the study if an intracranial infection was confirmed, the horse had a primary infectious disease process involving the head, and there were no signs of systemic infection.

Results—23 adult horses with bacterial meningitis or a brain abscess were examined during the study period, but only 7 met the criteria for inclusion in the study. Primary sites of infection included the paranasal sinuses, nasal cavity, periocular tissues, and submandibular lymph nodes. Three horses died suddenly prior to hospitalization, and 1 horse was hospitalized but died 7 days after the onset of neurologic abnormalities. The remaining 3 horses were euthanatized because of a rapid deterioration in clinical status.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although rare, fatal intracranial complications can develop in horses with infectious diseases involving the head. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:739–742)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To assess clinical effects of an omega-3 fatty acid and protein-enriched diet, physical rehabilitation, or both in dogs following tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) and arthroscopic surgery for cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) disease.

DESIGN Randomized, prospective clinical trial.

ANIMALS 48 dogs with unilateral CCL disease.

PROCEDURES Dogs were randomly assigned to receive a dry omega-3 fatty acid and protein-enriched dog food formulated to support joint health (test food [TF]), a dry food formulated for maintenance of adult dogs (control food [CF]), TF plus rehabilitation (TF-R), or CF plus rehabilitation (CF-R). Data collected over 6 months included body weight, body condition score, ground reaction force data, tibial plateau angle, limb circumference measurements, subjective pain and lameness scores assigned by surgeons and dog owners, and daily activity measured by accelerometry.

RESULTS Peak vertical force and vertical impulse were greater after surgery for dogs in the TF groups than in the CF groups; peak vertical force was greater after surgery in dogs that underwent rehabilitation than in those that did not. Owner scores indicated lower frequencies of lameness and signs of pain during some activities for the TF group, compared with other groups, and for the TF-R and CF-R groups, compared with the CF group. Sedentary time decreased and time spent in light-to-moderate or vigorous activity increased in all groups over time. Rehabilitation was significantly associated with greater time spent in light-to-moderate activity, regardless of diet.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Feeding the TF and providing physical rehabilitation during the first 6 months after TPLO were associated with improvements in some indices of clinical outcome and function in dogs. Significant interactions between time and some outcome variables were observed, indicating further research is warranted.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate transabdominal ultrasound-guided amniocentesis for detection of equid herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1)-induced fetal infection in utero.

Animals

4 Welsh Mountain mares.

Procedure

Pregnant mares were inoculated intranasally with EHV-1 during the ninth month of gestation. Amniocentesis was initiated on postinoculation day (PID) 12, and was performed at 2- to 3-day intervals in standing mares under deep sedation. Amniotic fluid samples were tested by virus isolation (VI), polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and immunoperoxidase cytologic examination (IC) for detection of EHV-1.

Results

Exposure to EHV-1 in the ninth month of gestation resulted in nasal shedding of infective virus, establishment of cell-associated viremia, and seroconversion. Equid herpesvirus 1 was detected by VI, PCR, and IC in amniotic fluid collected on PID 14 from 1 mare and on PID 16 and 17 from a second mare. Specimens of amniotic fluid from a third mare were VI negative until PID 18, when collections ceased, although this mare subsequently aborted an EHV-1-infected fetus on PID 28. The fourth mare aborted an EHV-1 infected fetus on PID 14. The 2 mares with VI-positive amniotic fluid were each carrying an EHV-1 infected fetus in utero, confirmed by examination of the uterus, placenta, and fetus, using specific immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Endothelial cells in the endometrium and allantochorion were often virus-infected, with accompanying vascular lesions. The fetus had been infected via the chorionic vasculature in the first and fourth mares, and by inhalation of infected amniotic fluid in the second mare.

Conclusion

Amniocentesis permits specific detection of EHV-1-induced fetal infection in utero.

Clinical Relevance

Amniocentesis may have a clinical role in the specific identification and isolation of mares carrying virus-infected fetuses during EHV-1- induced abortion epizootics. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:997–1002)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine effects of hip joint osteoarthritis on radiographic measures of hip joint laxity and congruence.

Design—Longitudinal study.

Animals—40 Labrador Retrievers.

Procedures—Dogs were assigned to 2 groups based on radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis. Dogs in the osteoarthritis group were free of osteoarthritis at initial radiographic evaluation (t1) and developed osteoarthritis by a subsequent radiographic evaluation (t2). Dogs in the nonosteoarthritis group had no radiographic osteoarthritis at either evaluation. Hip joint laxity was quantified by use of the distraction index (DI) from a distraction radiographic view and use of the Norberg angle (NA) from a ventrodorsal hip-extended radiographic view. The compression index (CI) from a compression radiographic view was used as a measure of joint congruence (concentricity).

Results—Hip joint laxity (NA or DI) did not change over time in the nonosteoarthritis group. Mean hip joint laxity (NA and DI) for the osteoarthritis group was greater at t1 than for the nonosteoarthritis group. With the onset of osteoarthritis, mean NA decreased significantly and mean CI increased significantly, but mean DI remained unchanged.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—No radiographic evidence for compensatory hip joint tightening associated with osteoarthritis was detected. Hip-extended radiography revealed that hip joints got looser with osteoarthritis and NA decreased. Hip joint laxity (DI) on distraction radiographs was unchanged by the onset of osteoarthritis and remained constant in the osteoarthritis and nonosteoarthritis groups at both evaluations. However, the CI increased with osteoarthritis, as reflected in nonzero indices (incongruence). The CI may be a valid marker for early hip joint osteoarthritis.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—A 6-month-old male Bactrian camel was examined because of a 3-week history of lameness of the left hind limb.

Clinical Findings—Lameness was initially detected in the left hind limb but resolved and was detected in the right hind limb during treatment. Lameness increased during periods of rapid growth. Radiography revealed multiple small opacities of the medullary cavity of several long bones throughout treatment. Core bone biopsies of lesions in the tibiae revealed lamellar bone with areas of loose connective tissue, osteoblasts in the medullary cavity, and periosteal new bone formation, all which were consistent with panosteitis.

Treatment and Outcome—Palliative treatment was attempted with epidural and transdermal administration of analgesics. Flunixin meglumine was administered PO, which coincided with an abrupt increase in serum creatinine concentration. Performance of multiple diagnostic bone biopsies led to remission of clinical signs of pain.

Clinical Relevance—Panosteitis should be a differential diagnosis for shifting limb lameness in young camels. Bone biopsies can be useful for diagnosis of panosteitis and possible relief of pain associated with the disease. Bactrian camels may be susceptible to the renal toxicity of flunixin meglumine, especially when dehydrated.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of an omega-3 fatty acid and protein–enriched diet, physical rehabilitation, or both on radiographic findings and markers of synovial inflammation in dogs following tibial plateau leveling osteotomy and arthroscopic surgery for treatment of cranial cruciate ligament disease.

DESIGN Randomized, prospective clinical trial.

ANIMALS 48 dogs with unilateral cranial cruciate ligament disease.

PROCEDURES Dogs were randomly assigned to receive a dry omega-3 fatty acid and protein–enriched dog food formulated to support joint health (test food [TF]), a dry food formulated for adult canine maintenance (control food [CF]), TF plus rehabilitation, or CF plus rehabilitation after surgery. Synovial fluid prostaglandin (PG) E2 and interleukin-1β concentrations, radiographic osteoarthritis scores, osteotomy site healing, and patellar ligament thickness were assessed at predetermined time points up to 6 months after surgery.

RESULTS Dogs that received CF had significantly higher PGE2 concentrations over time following surgery than did dogs that received TF, regardless of rehabilitation status. Synovial fluid interleukin-1β concentrations did not change over time in any groups. Diet and rehabilitation were both associated with osteoarthritis scores, with significantly lower scores over time for dogs that received TF versus CF and for dogs that underwent rehabilitation versus those that did not. Proportions of dogs with complete osteotomy healing 8 and 24 weeks after surgery were significantly lower for dogs that received TF than for dogs that received CF, regardless of rehabilitation status.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that feeding the TF can result in lower synovial fluid PGE2 concentrations and that both the TF and rehabilitation can reduce progression of osteoarthritis in the 6 months following tibial plateau leveling osteotomy; clinical relevance of slower osteotomy healing in dogs fed the TF was unclear.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the knowledge of various veterinary specialists regarding various radiation safety matters and determine the availability of radiation safety training.

DESIGN Cross-sectional study.

SAMPLE 164 radiology, 81 internal medicine, and 108 emergency and critical care (ECC) specialists.

PROCEDURES An online survey was developed regarding knowledge of and training in radiation safety, and invitations were sent via email through the email lists of the veterinary internal medicine, ECC, and radiology specialty colleges. Responses were summarized, and comparisons were made between radiologists and internal medicine and ECC clinicians.

RESULTS 65.5% (38 /58) of respondents from academic institutions and 30.0% (33/110) of respondents from private practices indicated that radiation safety training was mandatory at their institution for personnel who work with ionizing radiation–emitting equipment, and 80.2% (85/106) and 56.6% (77/136), respectively, had received some radiation safety training. Low proportions of radiologists and internal medicine and ECC clinicians correctly identified the effective dose of ionizing radiation associated with 3-phase esophagography and 3-phase abdominal CT. Many radiologists (92/153 [60.1%]) and nonradiologists (92/179 [51.4%]) believed that the effective doses used in veterinary practice pose no increased risk of fatal cancer to their patients.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Radiation safety training, although more common in academia, was not universally available and may not meet radiography equipment license requirements for some institutions. Most radiologists, internal medicine clinicians, and ECC clinicians had a poor understanding of the amount of ionizing radiation associated with medical imaging procedures and the potential hazards to their patients.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine duration of administration, complications, and frequency of aortic thromboembolism associated with administration of low molecular weight heparin (dalteparin) in cats.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—57 cats treated with dalteparin.

Procedure—Data were recorded from the medical records of cats treated with dalteparin, and owners were contacted by telephone for information regarding ease of administration and possible adverse effects.

Results—Dalteparin was easily administered by owners. Median dose was 99 U/kg (45 U/lb) once or twice daily. Bleeding complications were infrequent. Of 43 cats with cardiomyopathy that received owner-administered dalteparin for a median follow-up time of 172 days, 8 cats developed documented or possible arterial thromboembolism.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dalteparin was easily administered by owners and was well tolerated by cats. Whether dalteparin administration can reduce the frequency or severity of arterial thromboembolism is not yet known. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:1237–1241)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Recent state and federal legislative actions and current recommendations from the World Health Organization seem to suggest that, when it comes to antimicrobial stewardship, use of antimicrobials for prevention, control, or treatment of disease can be ranked in order of appropriateness, which in turn has led, in some instances, to attempts to limit or specifically oppose the routine use of medically important antimicrobials for prevention of disease. In contrast, the AVMA Committee on Antimicrobials believes that attempts to evaluate the degree of antimicrobial stewardship on the basis of therapeutic intent are misguided and that use of antimicrobials for prevention, control, or treatment of disease may comply with the principles of antimicrobial stewardship. It is important that veterinarians and animal caretakers are clear about the reason they may be administering antimicrobials to animals in their care. Concise definitions of prevention, control, and treatment of individuals and populations are necessary to avoid confusion and to help veterinarians clearly communicate their intentions when prescribing or recommending antimicrobial use.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Supply chain issues disrupt veterinary care and cause downstream consequences that alter the practice of veterinary medicine. Antimicrobials are just 1 class of pharmaceuticals that have been impacted by supply chain issues over the last couple of years. Since February 2021, 2 sponsors/manufacturers of penicillin products have reported shortages in the active pharmaceutical ingredient. With the release of the 2021 Summary Report on Antimicrobials Sold or Distributed for Use in Food-Producing Animals by the FDA, a key finding was a 19% decrease in penicillin sales and distribution from 2020 to 2021. Herein, we provide our clinicians’ professional perspective regarding how drug shortages, specifically that of penicillin, might contribute to misconstrued patterns in antimicrobial use and what can be done by veterinarians and the FDA to minimize the impact of an antimicrobial drug shortage on animal health and well-being.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association