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History and Physical Examination Findings

A 14-year-old Dutch Warmblood gelding underwent a routine oral examination. The horse had no history of dysphagia, facial swelling, nasal discharge, or prior facial trauma. Maxillofacial examination revealed a firm, linear subcutaneous mass rostral to the left masseter muscle and ventral to the facial crest. After sedation with detomidine a (0.015 mg/kg [0.007 mg/lb]) and butorphanol b (0.004 mg/kg [0.002 mg/lb]) administered IV, oral examination revealed sharp enamel points on the buccal aspects of the maxillary cheek teeth and lingual aspects of the mandibular cheek teeth. Scarring and abrasions of the buccal mucosa,

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE To characterize and identify factors associated with intraoperative and postoperative complications of maxillectomy in dogs with oral tumors.

DESIGN Retrospective cohort study.

ANIMALS 193 dogs that underwent maxillectomy for oral tumor excision from 2000 through 2011.

PROCEDURES Data were extracted from the medical records regarding dog signalment, tumor location and size, histologic findings, clinical stage, maxillectomy category, surgical approach, and additional treatments provided. These factors were examined for associations with recorded intraoperative and postoperative outcomes.

RESULTS The most common intraoperative complication was excessive surgical bleeding (103/193 [53.4%]), for which 44 (42.7%) dogs received an intraoperative blood transfusion. These outcomes were both significantly associated with tumor size and location, maxillectomy type, and surgical approach. Dogs treated with a dorsolateral combined intraoral surgical approach were more likely to have excessive surgical bleeding (48/58 [83%]) and had a longer mean duration of surgery (106 minutes) than those treated with an intraoral approach (29/54 [54%] and 77 minutes, respectively). Complications developing within 48 hours after surgery included epistaxis (99/193 [51.3%]), excessive facial swelling (71/193 [36.8%]), facial pawing (21/193 [10.9%]), and difficulty eating (22/193 [11.4%]). Complications developing within 48 hours to 4 weeks after surgery included lip trauma (22/164 [13.4%]), oronasal fistula formation (18/164 [11.0%]), wound dehiscence (18/164 [11.0%]), and infection (13/164 [7.9%]).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Complications associated with maxillectomy in dogs were generally minor. Aggressive surgical planning, preparedness for hemorrhage and transfusion, careful tissue dissection, and comprehensive pain control are recommended, particularly for dogs with large, caudally located oral tumors requiring extensive excision.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE To identify whether age, sex, or breed is associated with crown height of the left and right maxillary first molar tooth (M1) measured on CT images, to develop a mathematical model to determine age of horses by use of M1 crown height, and to determine the correlation between M1 crown height measured on radiographic and CT images.

SAMPLE CT (n = 735) and radiographic images (35) of the heads of horses.

PROCEDURES Crown height of left and right M1 was digitally measured on axial CT views. Height was measured on a lateral radiographic image when available. Linear regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with crown height. Half the data set was subsequently used to generate a regression model to predict age on the basis of M1 crown height, and the other half was used to validate accuracy of the predictions.

RESULTS M1 crown height decreased with increasing age, but the rate of decrease slowed with increasing age. Height also differed by sex and breed. The model most accurately reflected age of horses < 10 years old, although age was overestimated by a mean of 0.1 years. The correlation between radiographic and CT crown height of M1 was 0.91; the mean for radiographic measurements was 2.5 mm greater than for CT measurements.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE M1 crown height can be used to predict age of horses. Results for CT images correlated well with those for radiographic images. Studies are needed to develop a comparable model with results for radiographic images.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine whether severity of periodontal disease (PD) was associated with systemic health indices in dogs and whether treatment of PD altered systemic health indices.

Design—Prospective cohort study.

Animals—38 dogs.

Procedures—Healthy dogs with clinical signs of PD were included in the study. Physical examination, serum biochemical analysis, a CBC, urine evaluati on, measurement of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration, and a microalbuminuria test were performed prior to treatment of PD. All tooth roots were scored for gingivitis and attachment loss, and appropriate treatment of PD was performed. Laboratory data were obtained 4 weeks after treatment. The Spearman rank correlation and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used for statistical analysis.

Results—Analyses of the correlation of several variables with attachment loss or gingivitis or of differences before and after treatment revealed significant results for several variables. After applying Bonferroni corrections for family-wise error rate, significant rank correlations were found between attachment loss and platelet number (r = 0.54), creatinine concentration (r = −0.49), and the within-dog difference in CRP concentrations before and after treatment (r = 0.40). The BUN concentration was significantly higher after treatment than before treatment.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Increasing severity of attachment loss was associated with changes in systemic inflammatory variables and renal indices. A decrease in CRP concentration after treatment was correlated with the severity of PD. The BUN concentration increased significantly after treatment of PD. There is a need for continued research into the systemic impact of PD.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association