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OBJECTIVE To evaluate hemodynamic, respiratory, and sedative effects of buccally administered detomidine gel and reversal with atipamezole in dogs.

ANIMALS 8 adult purpose-bred dogs.

PROCEDURES Arterial and venous catheters were placed. Baseline heart rate, respiratory rate, cardiac output (determined via lithium dilution with pulse contour analysis), oxygen delivery, systemic vascular resistance, arterial blood gas values, and sedation score were obtained. Detomidine gel (2.0 mg/m2) was administered on the buccal mucosa. Cardiopulmonary data and sedation scores were obtained at predetermined times over 180 minutes. Atipamezole (0.1 mg/kg) was administered IM at 150 minutes. Reversal of sedation was timed and scored. Data were analyzed with an ANOVA.

RESULTS Compared with baseline values, heart rate was lower at 45 to 150 minutes, cardiac output and oxygen delivery were lower at 30 to 150 minutes, and systemic vascular resistance was increased at 30 to 150 minutes. There were no significant changes in Paco 2, Pao 2, or lactate concentration at any time point, compared with baseline values, except for lactate concentration at 180 minutes. All dogs became sedated; maximum sedation was detected 75 minutes after administration of detomidine. Mean ± SD time to recovery after atipamezole administration was 7.55 ± 1.89 minutes; sedation was completely reversed in all dogs. No adverse events were detected.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Buccally administered detomidine gel was associated with reliable and reversible sedation in dogs, with hemodynamic effects similar to those induced by other α2-adrenoceptor agonists. Buccally administered detomidine gel could be an alternative to injectable sedatives in healthy dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To investigate effects of lidocaine hydrochloride administered IV on mucosal inflammation in ischemia-injured jejunum of horses treated with flunixin meglumine.

Animals—24 horses.

Procedures—Horses received saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (SS; 1 mL/50 kg, IV [1 dose]), flunixin meglumine (1 mg/kg, IV, q 12 h), lidocaine (bolus [1.3 mg/kg] and constant rate infusion [0.05 mg/kg/min], IV, during and after recovery from surgery), or both flunixin and lidocaine (n = 6/group). During surgery, blood flow was occluded for 2 hours in 2 sections of jejunum in each horse. Uninjured and ischemia-injured jejunal specimens were collected after the ischemic period and after euthanasia 18 hours later for histologic assessment and determination of cyclooxygenase (COX) expression (via western blot procedures). Plasma samples collected prior to (baseline) and 8 hours after the ischemic period were analyzed for prostanoid concentrations.

Results—Immediately after the ischemic period, COX-2 expression in horses treated with lidocaine alone was significantly less than expression in horses treated with SS or flunixin alone. Eighteen hours after the ischemic period, mucosal neutrophil counts in horses treated with flunixin alone were significantly higher than counts in other treatment groups. Compared with baseline plasma concentrations, postischemia prostaglandin E2 metabolite and thromboxane B2 concentrations increased in horses treated with SS and in horses treated with SS or lidocaine alone, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In horses with ischemia-injured jejunum, lidocaine administered IV reduced plasma prostaglandin E2 metabolite concentration and mucosal COX-2 expression. Coadministration of lidocaine with flunixin ameliorated the flunixin-induced increase in mucosal neutrophil counts.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine the effect of meloxicam and flunixin meglumine on recovery of ischemia-injured equine jejunum.

Animals—18 horses.

Procedures—Horses received butorphanol tartrate; were treated IV with saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (SS; 12 mL; n = 6), flunixin meglumine (1.1 mg/kg; 6), or meloxicam (0.6 mg/kg; 6) 1 hour before ischemia was induced for 2 hours in a portion of jejunum; and were allowed to recover for 18 hours. Flunixin and SS treatments were repeated after 12 hours; all 3 treatments were administered immediately prior to euthanasia. Selected clinical variables, postoperative pain scores, and meloxicam pharmacokinetic data were evaluated. After euthanasia, assessment of epithelial barrier function, histologic evaluation, and western blot analysis of ischemia-injured and control jejunal mucosa samples from the 3 groups were performed.

Results—Meloxicam- or flunixin-treated horses had improved postoperative pain scores and clinical variables, compared with SS-treated horses. Recovery of transepithelial barrier function in ischemia-injured jejunum was inhibited by flunixin but permitted similarly by meloxicam and SS treatments. Eighteen hours after cessation of ischemia, numbers of neutrophils in ischemia-injured tissue were higher in horses treated with meloxicam or flu-nixin than SS. Plasma meloxicam concentrations were similar to those reported previously, but clearance was slower. Changes in expression of proteins associated with inflammatory responses to ischemic injury and with different drug treatments occurred, suggesting cy-clooxygenase-independent effects.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although further assessment is needed, these data have suggested that IV administration of meloxicam may be a useful alternative to flunixin meglumine for postoperative treatment of horses with colic.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine the long-term survival rate and factors that affect survival time of domestic ferrets treated surgically for hyperadrenocorticism.

Study Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—130 ferrets with hyperadrenocorticism that were treated surgically.

Procedures—Medical records of ferrets surgically treated for hyperadrenocorticism were reviewed. Data recorded included signalment, duration of clinical signs prior to hospital admission, CBC values, serum biochemical analysis results, anesthetic time, surgical time, concurrent diseases, adrenal gland affected (right, left, or both [bilateral]), histopathologic diagnosis, surgical procedure, caudal vena caval involvement (yes or no), postoperative melena (yes or no), days in hospital after surgery, and whether clinical signs of hyperadrenocorticism developed after surgery.

Results—130 ferrets were entered in the study (11 of 130 ferrets were admitted and underwent surgery twice). The 1- and 2-year survival rates were 98% and 88%, respectively. A 50% survival rate was never reached. Combined partial adrenal gland resection with cryosurgery had a significantly negative effect on survival time. No other risk factors were identified. Survival time was not significantly affected by either histopathologic diagnosis or specific affected adrenal gland (right, left, or bilateral).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ferrets with adrenal gland masses that were treated surgically had a good prognosis. Survival time of ferrets with hyperadrenocorticism undergoing surgery was not affected by the histologic characteristic of the tumor, the adrenal glands affected (right, left, or bilateral), or complete versus partial adrenal gland resection. Debulking was a sufficient surgical technique to allow a favorable long-term outcome when complete excision was not possible.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To determine intravascular and intrasynovial pharmacokinetics of the R and S enantiomers of ketoprofen after IV and IM administration to horses.


6 healthy adult mares.


Horses were weighed and ketoprofen (2.2 mg/kg of body weight) was administered IV. Blood and synovial fluid samples were obtained and analyzed for concentrations of the R and S enantiomers by means of a modified reverse-phase stereospecific high-pressure liquid chromatographic method. Three weeks later, the procedure was repeated, except that ketoprofen was given IM. Protein binding of ketoprofen enantiomers was determined by means of ultrafiltration. Nonlinear least squares methods were used to calculate pharmacokinetic parameters.


Data obtained after IV administration best fit an open, two-compartment model. Mean ± SD S-to-R serum concentration ratios after IV and IM administration were 1.36 ± 0.214 and 1.34 ± 0.245, respectively. Intrasynovial concentrations of the R and S enantiomers of ketoprofen could be measured for only the first 3 hours after IV administration; concentrations were less than the limit of quantification by 4 hours after IV administration and at all times after IM administration. Extent of protein binding of the R enantiomer was not significantly different from extent of protein binding of the S enantiomer; extent of protein binding did not appear to be concentration dependent. Mean free S-to-free R serum concentration ratios, adjusted for protein binding, after IV and IM administration were 1.58 and 1.56, respectively.


The R and S enantiomers of ketoprofen are rapidly absorbed and eliminated, have low volumes of distribution, and are highly protein bound. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:739-743)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To compare hoof acceleration and ground reaction force (GRF) data among dirt, synthetic, and turf surfaces in Thoroughbred racehorses.

Animals—3 healthy Thoroughbred racehorses.

Procedures—Forelimb hoof accelerations and GRFs were measured with an accelerometer and a dynamometric horseshoe during trot and canter on dirt, synthetic, and turf track surfaces at a racecourse. Maxima, minima, temporal components, and a measure of vibration were extracted from the data. Acceleration and GRF variables were compared statistically among surfaces.

Results—The synthetic surface often had the lowest peak accelerations, mean vibration, and peak GRFs. Peak acceleration during hoof landing was significantly smaller for the synthetic surface (mean ± SE, 28.5g ± 2.9g) than for the turf surface (42.9g ± 3.8g). Hoof vibrations during hoof landing for the synthetic surface were < 70% of those for the dirt and turf surfaces. Peak GRF for the synthetic surface (11.5 ± 0.4 N/kg) was 83% and 71% of those for the dirt (13.8 ± 0.3 N/kg) and turf surfaces (16.1 ± 0.7 N/kg), respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The relatively low hoof accelerations, vibrations, and peak GRFs associated with the synthetic surface evaluated in the present study indicated that synthetic surfaces have potential for injury reduction in Thoroughbred racehorses. However, because of the unique material properties and different nature of individual dirt, synthetic, and turf racetrack surfaces, extending the results of this study to encompass all track surfaces should be done with caution.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research