PROCEDURES Baseline rectal temperature, heart rate, and respiratory rate were recorded prior to premedication with buprenorphine (0.02 mg/kg, IM) and acepromazine (0.05 mg/kg, IM). Anesthesia was induced with midazolam or diazepam (0.25 mg/kg, IV) plus ketamine (5 mg/kg, IV; n = 11) or propofol (4 mg/kg, IV; 12) and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. Rectal temperature was measured at hospital intake, prior to premedication, immediately after anesthetic induction, and every 5 minutes after anesthetic induction. Esophageal temperature was measured every 5 minutes during anesthesia, beginning 30 minutes after anesthetic induction. After anesthesia, dogs were covered with a warm-air blanket and rectal temperature was measured every 10 minutes until normothermia (37°C) was achieved.
RESULTS Dogs in both treatment groups had lower rectal temperatures within 5 minutes after anesthetic induction and throughout anesthesia. Compared with dogs that received a benzodiazepine plus ketamine, dogs that received a benzodiazepine plus propofol had significantly lower rectal temperatures and the interval from discontinuation of anesthesia to achievement of normothermia was significantly longer.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Dogs in which anesthesia was induced with a benzodiazepine plus propofol or ketamine became hypothermic; the extent of hypothermia was more profound for the propofol combination. Dogs should be provided with adequate heat support after induction of anesthesia, particularly when a propofol-benzodiazepine combination is administered.
Objective—To investigate tissue diffusion of anesthetic agent following administration of low palmar nerve blocks (LPBs) in horses.
Design—Randomized clinical trial.
Animals—12 adult horses.
Procedures—In 9 horses, mepivacaine hydrochloride–iohexol (50:50 dilution) injections were administered bilaterally (2 or 4 mL/site) to affect the medial and lateral palmar and palmar metacarpal nerves (4 sites). Lateral radiographic views of both metacarpal regions were obtained before and at 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after block administration; proximal and distal extents of contrast medium (and presumably anesthetic agent) diffusion from palmar and palmar metacarpal injection sites were measured and summed to determine total diffusion. Methylene blue solution was injected in forelimbs of 3 other horses that were subsequently euthanized to determine the potential route of anesthetic agent diffusion to the proximal suspensory ligament region.
Results—Mean extents of proximal and total contrast medium diffusion were 4.0 and 6.6 cm, respectively, for the palmar metacarpal nerves and 4.3 and 7.1 cm, respectively, for the palmar nerves. Subtle proximal diffusion secondary to lymphatic drainage was evident in 17 of the 18 limbs. Contrast medium was detected in the metacarpophalangeal joint or within the digital flexor tendon sheath in 8 and 7 limbs, respectively. In the cadaver limbs, methylene blue solution did not extend to the proximal suspensory ligament region.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In horses, LPBs resulted in minimal proximal diffusion of anesthetic agent from the injection sites. Limbs should be aseptically prepared prior to LPB administration because inadvertent intrasynovial injection may occur.
Objective—To assess the accuracy of an ultrasound velocity dilution cardiac output (UDCO) method, compared with that of the lithium dilution cardiac output (LiDCO) method, for determination of cardiac output (CO) in juvenile horses with experimentally induced hypovolemia.
Animals—12 anesthetized 2- to 6-month-old horses.
Procedures—For each anesthetized horse, CO was determined by the LiDCO and UDCO methods prior to any intervention (baseline state), after withdrawal of approximately 40% of the horse's blood volume (low CO state), after maintenance of hypovolemia and infusion of norepinephrine until mean arterial blood pressure was equal to baseline value (high CO state), and after further infusion of norepinephrine and back-transfusion of withdrawn blood (posttransfusion state). For each of the 4 hemodynamic situations, CO and calculated cardiac index (CI) values were obtained by each method in duplicate (8 pairs of measurements/horse); mean values for each horse and overall mean values across all horses were calculated. Agreement between CI determined by each method (96 paired values) was assessed by Bland-Altman analysis.
Results—For the UDCO method–derived CI measurements among the 12 horses, mean ± SD bias was −4 ± 11.3 mL/kg/min (95% limits of agreement, −26.1 to 18.2 mL/kg/min) and mean relative bias was −10.4 ± 21.5% (95% limits of agreement, −52.6% to 31.8%).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that, compared with the LiDCO method, the UDCO method has acceptable clinical usefulness for determination of CO in foals.