Objective—To determine clinical characteristics of
dogs that received massive transfusion and identify
the underlying diseases, complications, and outcomes.
Procedure—Medical records of dogs receiving a
massive blood transfusion were evaluated for transfusion
volume, underlying disease process or injury,
benefits and complications of transfusion, and outcome.
A massive transfusion was defined as transfusion
of a volume of blood products in excess of the
patient's estimated blood volume (90 ml/kg [40 ml/lb])
in a 24-hour period or transfusion of a volume of blood
products in excess of half the patient's estimated
blood volume in a 3-hour period.
Results—Six dogs had intra-abdominal neoplasia
resulting in hemoabdomen, 3 had suffered a traumatic
incident resulting in hemoabdomen, and 6 had nontraumatic,
non-neoplastic blood loss. Mean volumes
of packed RBC and fresh-frozen plasma administered
were 66.5 ml/kg (30 ml/lb) and 22.2 ml/kg (10 ml/lb),
respectively. All dogs evaluated developed low ionized
calcium concentrations and thrombocytopenia.
Transfusion reactions were recognized in 6 dogs.
Four dogs survived to hospital discharge.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that massive transfusion is possible and potentially
successful in dogs. Predictable changes in electrolyte
concentrations and platelet count develop. (J
Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:1664–1669)