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To determine whether intrarenal injection of sodium pentobarbital is a viable method for euthanasia in anesthetized client-owned cats and assess potential factors associated with time to cardiopulmonary arrest (TCPA) for such treated cats.


131 client-owned cats.


In this retrospective study, client-owned cats presented for euthanasia between March 1, 2009, and January 15, 2010, were evaluated by veterinarians to determine suitability of intrarenal injection versus other methods of euthanasia. Cats included were anesthetized and then received 6 mL of sodium pentobarbital (390 mg/mL) by intrarenal injection. Results for TCPA were compared for cats grouped on the basis of variables of interest.


131 cats were included, of which 74 (79%) had a TCPA < 1 minute and 28 (21%) had a TCPA between 1.5 and 8 minutes after intrarenal injection. Most (124/131 [95%]) cats had no observable reaction to the intrarenal injection other than cardiopulmonary arrest. Median TCPA was longer for cats without (1 min; 25/131 [19%]) versus with (0 min; 106/131 [81%]) palpable kidney swelling upon injection.


The effects of intrarenal injection of sodium pentobarbital in cats of the present study were similar to those typically observed with IV administration of euthanasia solution. When this intrarenal injection method is used, cardiopulmonary arrest with few agonal reactions can be expected to occur quickly in most patients. The intrarenal injection method is suited for euthanasia of anesthetized cats with easily located kidneys when IV access may be difficult.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To characterize risk factors, clinical findings, usefulness of diagnostic tests, and prognosis in cats with naturally occurring heartworm infection (HWI).

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—50 cats with Dirofilaria immitis infection.

Procedure—Medical records, thoracic radiographs, and echocardiograms were reviewed and findings compared with appropriate reference populations.

Results—Findings suggested that male cats were not predisposed to HWI, domestic shorthair cats were at increased risk, and indoor housing was only partially protective. Fewer cases of HWI were identified in the final quarter of the year, compared with other periods, and prevalence is not apparently increasing. Signs of respiratory tract disease were most common, followed by vomiting. Infection was diagnosed incidentally in > 25% of cats; conversely, 10% of infected cats died suddenly without other clinical signs. Serologic tests were most useful for diagnosis, followed by radiography and echocardiography. Eosinophilia supported the diagnosis. Overall median survival time was 1.5 years but exceeded 4 years in cats surviving beyond the day of diagnosis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Sex does not appear to be a risk factor for HWI in cats, and indoor housing provides only incomplete protection. Signs of respiratory tract disease (dyspnea and cough) are the strongest indicators of HWI in cats, and some radiographic evidence of infection is detected in most cases. Antibody screening for HWI in cats is efficacious, and antigen testing and echocardiography are most useful for making a definitive antemortem diagnosis. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217: 355–358)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine the efficacy of long-term enalapril administration in delaying the onset of congestive heart failure (CHF).

Design—Placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicenter, randomized trial.

Animals—124 dogs with compensated mitral valve regurgitation (MR).

Procedures—Dogs randomly assigned to receive enalapril or placebo were monitored for the primary endpoint of onset of CHF for ≤ 58 months. Secondary endpoints included time from study entry to the combined endpoint of CHF-all-cause death; number of dogs free of CHF at 500, 1,000, and 1,500 days; and mean number of CHF-free days.

Results—Kaplan-Meier estimates of the effect of enalapril on the primary endpoint did not reveal a significant treatment benefit. Chronic enalapril administration did have a significant benefit on the combined endpoint of CHF-all-cause death (benefit was 317 days [10.6 months]). Dogs receiving enalapril remained free of CHF for a significantly longer time than those receiving placebo and were significantly more likely to be free of CHF at day 500 and at study end.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Chronic enalapril treatment of dogs with naturally occurring, moderate to severe MR significantly delayed onset of CHF, compared with placebo, on the basis of number of CHF-free days, number of dogs free of CHF at days 500 and study end, and increased time to a combined secondary endpoint of CHF-all-cause death. Improvement in the primary endpoint, CHF-free survival, was not significant. Results suggest that enalapril modestly delays the onset of CHF in dogs with moderate to severe MR.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine the effect of long-term administration of enalapril on renal function in dogs with severe, compensated mitral regurgitation.

Design—Randomized controlled trial.

Animals—139 dogs with mitral regurgitation but without overt signs of heart failure.

Procedure—Dogs were randomly assigned to be treated with enalapril (0.5 mg/kg [0.23 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h) or placebo, and serum creatinine and urea nitrogen concentrations were measured at regular intervals for up to 26 months.

Results—Adequate information on renal function was obtained from 132 dogs; follow-up time ranged from 0.5 to 26 months (median, 12 months). Mean serum creatinine and urea nitrogen concentrations were not significantly different between dogs receiving enalapril and dogs receiving the placebo at any time, nor were concentrations significantly different from baseline concentrations. Proportions of dogs that developed azotemia or that had a ≥ 35% increase in serum creatinine or urea nitrogen concentration were also not significantly different between groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that administration of enalapril for up to 2 years did not have any demonstrable adverse effects on renal function in dogs with severe, compensated mitral regurgitation. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221: 654–658)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association