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Abstract

Objective—To determine long-term effects of transendoscopic, laser-assisted ventriculocordectomy (LAVC) on airway noise and performance in horses with naturally occurring left laryngeal hemiplegia.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—22 horses with left laryngeal hemiplegia treated by means of LAVC.

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed and initial complaint, intended use of the horse, duration of abnormal airway noise, preoperative performance level, endoscopic findings, surgical procedure, postoperative treatment, and complications were recorded. Follow-up telephone interviews with owners and trainers were conducted to determine time for return to intended use, level of postoperative performance, and percentage reduction in airway noise.

Results—All horses were examined because of excessive airway noise; 10 (45%) had concurrent exercise intolerance. Left ventriculocordectomy was performed in all 22 horses; bilateral ventriculocordectomy (right ventriculocordectomy was done 1 year later) was performed in 1 horse (5%). Complications occurred in 3 (14%) horses. Twenty (91%) horses returned to their intended use. Excessive airway noise was eliminated after surgery in 18 (82%) horses; exercise intolerance improved postoperatively in 8 of 10 horses. Three racing Thoroughbreds returned to racing; 1 additional racehorse returned to racing but required a laryngoplasty 1 year later to continue racing.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that LAVC was an effective procedure for elimination of excessive airway noise and improvement of performance in horses with left laryngeal hemiplegia.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objectives

To determine whether mucosal permeability is altered during the prodromal stages of alimentary laminitis.

Animals

15 healthy adult ponies.

Procedures

Intestinal permeability was evaluated for control ponies (n = 5) and for ponies 4 to 12 (n = 5) and 20 to 28 (n = 5) hours after administration of carbohydrate overload. Mucosal permeability was determined by measuring the percentage of orally administered technetium Tc99m diethylenetriaminopentaacetate (99mTc-DTPA) excreted in urine during an 8-hour period, then measuring blood radioactivity at hourly intervals. Plasma endotoxin-like activity was measured by use of a chromogenic Limulus amebocyte assay.

Results

Urinary excretion of 99mTc-DTPA was 2.45% of administered dose for control ponies, and was 16.67% of administered dose 4 to 12 hours and 3.57% of administered dose 20 to 28 hours after administration of carbohydrate.

Conclusions

A marked but transient increase in intestinal permeability was observed early in the prodromal stages of alimentary laminitis.

Clinical Relevance

Absorption of substances from the intestine may be an initiating event in alimentary laminitis. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1431–1434)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare isolated limb retrograde venous injection (ILRVI) and isolated limb infusion (ILI) for delivery of amikacin to the synovial fluid of the distal interphalangeal and metacarpophalangeal joints and to evaluate the efficacy of use of an Esmarch tourniquet in standing horses.

Animals—6 healthy adult horses.

Procedures—Horses were randomly assigned in a crossover design. In ILRVI, the injection consisted of 1 g of amikacin diluted to a total volume of 60 mL administered during a 3-minute period. In ILI, the infusion consisted of 1 g of amikacin diluted to 40 mL administered during a 3-minute period followed by administration of boluses of diluent (82 mL total) to maintain vascular pressure. During ILI, the infusate and blood were circulated from the venous to the arterial circulation in 5-mL aliquots. Synovial fluid and serum samples were obtained to determine maximum amikacin concentrations and tourniquet leakage, respectively.

Results—Both techniques yielded synovial concentrations of amikacin > 10 times the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for 90% of isolates (80 μg/mL) and > 10 times the MIC breakpoint (160 μg/mL) of amikacin-susceptible bacteria reported to cause septic arthritis in horses. These values were attained for both joints for both techniques. Esmarch tourniquets prevented detectable loss of amikacin to the systemic circulation for both techniques.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Both techniques reliably achieved synovial fluid concentrations of amikacin consistent with concentration-dependent killing for bacteria commonly encountered in horses with septic arthritis. Esmarch tourniquets were effective for both delivery techniques in standing horses.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the outcome of and prognostic indicators for dogs and cats with pneumoperitoneum and no history of penetrating trauma.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—43 dogs and 11 cats.

Procedure—Medical records of dogs and cats with radiographic evidence of pneumoperitoneum and no history of penetrating trauma were reviewed. Information collected included signalment, previous medical problems, initial complaint, duration of illness, physical examination findings, radiographic findings, laboratory abnormalities, abdominocentesis results, bacterial culture results, concurrent diseases, hospitalization time, and outcome. Abdominal radiographs were reviewed, and radiographic severity of pneumoperitoneum was classified. For those animals that underwent exploratory laparotomy, time from admission to surgery and results of histologic examination of biopsy specimens were recorded.

Results—24 (44%) animals survived and were discharged from the hospital, but none of the variables examined was associated with whether animals survived. Rupture of the gastrointestinal tract was the cause of pneumoperitoneum in 40 animals. However, cause and location of gastrointestinal tract rupture was not associated with whether animals survived. Twenty-three of 40 (58%) animals that underwent exploratory laparotomy survived, compared with only 1 of 14 animals that did not undergo surgery.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that pneumoperitoneum in dogs and cats without any history of penetrating trauma is most commonly associated with rupture of the gastrointestinal tract and requires immediate surgical intervention. Even when appropriate treatment is instituted, the shortterm prognosis is only fair. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:251–255)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine duration of administration, complications, and frequency of aortic thromboembolism associated with administration of low molecular weight heparin (dalteparin) in cats.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—57 cats treated with dalteparin.

Procedure—Data were recorded from the medical records of cats treated with dalteparin, and owners were contacted by telephone for information regarding ease of administration and possible adverse effects.

Results—Dalteparin was easily administered by owners. Median dose was 99 U/kg (45 U/lb) once or twice daily. Bleeding complications were infrequent. Of 43 cats with cardiomyopathy that received owner-administered dalteparin for a median follow-up time of 172 days, 8 cats developed documented or possible arterial thromboembolism.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dalteparin was easily administered by owners and was well tolerated by cats. Whether dalteparin administration can reduce the frequency or severity of arterial thromboembolism is not yet known. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:1237–1241)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the utility of a method for estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR) after single IV administration of iohexol.

Design

The plasma clearance of iodine (PCI), taken as the quotient of the administered dose of iodine (300 to 600 mg of l/kg of body weight) divided by the area under the plasma iodine concentration versus time curve determined by 4 methods (PCI1–PCI4). The results for PCI were compared with simultaneously obtained values for the urinary clearance of exogenously administered creatinine (CCr), a widely accepted method for the measurement of GFR in cats and dogs.

Animals

Cats and dogs that were renal intact (n = 5 cats; n = 1 dog) or had renal mass reduced by partial nephrectomy (n = 5 cats; n = 7 dogs).

Results

Values for PCI were closely related (R 2 values ranged from 0.947 to 0.992; P < 0.0001 in all cases) to CCr. Despite this close correlation between CCr and PCI, the 95% confidence interval for the difference between PCI3 and CCr included values that exceeded 1.4 ml/min/kg, which represents 50% of the mean value for CCr in renal-intact cats.

Conclusions

Determination of PCI provided a reliable estimate of GFR in cats and dogs of this study. However, differences between 1 of the methods (PCI3) and CCr are clinically important, emphasizing the need to use more than simple linear regression analysis and correlation coefficients when attempting to validate new measurement techniques.

Clinical Relevance

The determination of PCI provided a reliable estimate of GFR in cats and dogs of this study. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:105-110)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether administration of Crandell-Rees feline kidney (CRFK) cell lysates or vaccines against feline viral rhinotracheitis, calicivirus, and panleukopenia (FVRCP vaccines) that likely contain CRFK cell proteins induces antibodies against CRFK cell or feline renal cell (FRC) lysates in cats.

Animals—14 eight-week-old cats.

Procedure—Before and after the study, renal biopsy specimens were obtained from each cat for histologic evaluation. Each of 4 FVRCP vaccines was administered to 2 cats at weeks 0, 3, 6, and 50. Between weeks 0 and 50, another 3 pairs of cats received 11 CRFK cell lysate inoculations SC (10, 50, or 50 µg mixed with alum). Clinicopathologic evaluations and ELISAs to detect serum antibodies against CRFK cell or FRC lysates were performed at intervals.

Results—Cats had no antibodies against CRFK cell or FRC lysates initially. All cats administered CRFK cell lysate had detectable antibodies against CRFK cell or FRC lysates on multiple occasions. Of 6 cats vaccinated parenterally, 5 had detectable antibodies against CRFK cell lysate at least once, but all 6 had detectable antibodies against FRC lysate on multiple occasions. Cats administered an intranasal-intraocular vaccine did not develop detectable antibodies against either lysate. Important clinicopathologic or histologic abnormalities were not detected during the study.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Parenteral administration of vaccines containing viruses likely grown on CRFK cells induced antibodies against CRFK cell and FRC lysates in cats. Hypersensitization with CRFK cell proteins did not result in renal disease in cats during the 56-week study. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:506–511)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To examine exposure risks, possibility of zoonosis, and potential disease associations for feline retroviruses among a group of occupationally exposed individuals.

Design—Unlinked voluntary cross-sectional epidemiologic survey.

Sample Population—204 veterinarians, laboratory scientists, and other occupationally exposed individuals who attended a veterinary conference on feline geriatric medicine.

Procedure—Blood was collected from participants who also completed a 13-question survey requesting demographic, occupational, exposure, and health information. Blood specimens were fractionated into plasma and mononuclear cell components. Plasma was tested for antibodies against feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline foamy virus (FeFV), as well as p27 antigen of FeLV. Mononuclear cell lysates were tested for FeLV provirus.

Results—Subjects reported extensive duration of work with cats (mean, 17.3 years) and multiple highrisk exposures (eg, cat bites, scratches, and injuries with sharp instruments) per year. However, neither serologic nor molecular evidence of zoonosis with any of the 3 feline retroviruses was detected.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Veterinarians encounter occupational exposures to animal material that place them at high risk for zoonoses. For feline retroviruses, the risk of zoonosis among healthy adult humans appears to be extremely small. However, potential for retroviral zoonosis, especially for viruses such as FeLV and FeFV that can replicate in human cells, cannot be eliminated, and universal precautions to reduce potential exposures should be used when handling sick cats. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:1475–1479)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association