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To determine the pharmacokinetics and clinical safety of acetaminophen after oral administration of 40 mg/kg q 12 hours or 60 mg/kg q 24 hours for 14 days.


12 healthy light-breed neonatal foals.


6 foals received acetaminophen at 40 mg/kg q 12 hours and 6 foals received 60 mg/kg q 24 hours for 14 days. The study dates were January 31 to April 15, 2023. Physical examinations were performed daily. Plasma disposition of acetaminophen was determined after the first, mid-point drug administration. Hematology and biochemistry analysis was performed before the study, day 7, and the last day of drug administration. Plasma acetaminophen concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Plasma pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using noncompartmental analysis.


No statistically significant changes occurred on hematology or biochemistry profiles. Elevations in γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) were noted in 4 foals at various time points. The maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) occurred within 2 hours for both doses. The 60 mg/kg dose resulted in a larger median Cmax (range) at 28 μg/mL (22–32) than the 40 mg/kg dose at 23 μg/mL (19–27). The median area under the concentration-vs-time curve from 0 to 8 hours (AUC0–8 hour [range]) was 100 h•µg/mL (82–100) at 40 mg/kg and 128 h•µg/mL (120–168) for 60 mg/kg. Trough concentrations decreased over time for both regimens.


Foals tolerate oral acetaminophen at 40 mg/kg q 12 hours or 60 mg/kg q 24 hours. Further analgesic and antipyretic studies will help to delineate optimal dosage regimens of acetaminophen to treat foals.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine the serum concentrations and sedative effects of fentanyl after transdermal administration at 3 dosages in llamas.

Animals—9 healthy adult female llamas (mean age, 8 ± 3 years; mean weight, 150 ± 18 kg).

Procedure—Llamas were allocated to 1 of 3 groups (3 llamas/group). Fentanyl patches (each providing transdermal delivery of 75 µg of fentanyl/h) were placed on shaved areas of the antebrachium of all llamas. In group 1, llamas were treated with 1 patch (anticipated fentanyl dosage, 75 µg/h). In group 2, llamas were treated with 2 patches (anticipated fentanyl dosage, 150 µg/h). In group 3, llamas were treated with 4 patches (anticipated fentanyl dosage, 300 µg/h). For each llama, the degree of sedation was assessed by use of a subjective scoring system and a blood sample was collected for determination of serum fentanyl concentration at 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 hours after patch placement.

Results—Following the placement of 4 patches, mean ± SD serum fentanyl concentration in group 3 llamas reached 0.3 ± 0.08 ng/mL within 12 hours. This concentration was sustained for 72 hours. In group 2, application of 2 patches provided inconsistent results; in group 1, application of 1 patch rarely provided measurable serum fentanyl concentrations. No llamas became sedated at any time.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that application of four 75 µg/h fentanyl patches provides consistent, sustained serum fentanyl concentrations without sedation in llamas. However, the serum concentration of fentanyl that provides analgesia in llamas is not known. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:907–909)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research