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  • Author or Editor: Jeffrey S. Klausner x
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Records of 8 dogs with drug-associated aplastic anemia were reviewed. Drugs suspected as being causative included estradiol cyclopentylpropionate (3 dogs), phenylbutazone (2 dogs), meclofenamic acid (1 dog), trimethoprim-sulfadiazine and fenbendazole (1 dog), and quinidine (1 dog). Five of the dogs died or were euthanatized. One dog with estrogen-associated aplasia recovered after prolonged treatment. The dogs with trimethoprim-sulfadiazine and quinidine-associated marrow aplasia recovered promptly after treatment was discontinued.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To establish 2 vaccine-associated feline sarcoma (VAFS) cell lines and to determine their in vitro sensitivity to the chemotherapeutic agents doxorubicin and mitoxantrone.

Sample Population—Tumor specimens collected from 2 cats undergoing surgery for removal of vaccine- associated sarcomas.

Procedures—Tumor specimens were minced and treated with trypsin under aseptic conditions to obtain single-cell suspensions, which were then cultured in vitro in medium supplemented with 5% heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum. Growth rates and sensitivity after 24 hours of exposure to various concentrations (0.1 to 100 μg/ml) of doxorubicin and mitoxantrone were assessed for each cell line. Survival of cells was estimated 3 days after exposure to the 2 agents, and the concentration of each drug that resulted in a 50% reduction in the number of viable cells (IC50) was calculated.

Results—Two tumor-derived cell lines (FSA and FSB) were successfully established and determined to be sensitive to doxorubicin and mitoxantrone. Under the conditions tested, the IC50 of doxorubicin were 0.6 and 1.5 μg/ml for cell lines FSB and FSA, respectively. The IC50 of mitoxantrone was 0.4 μg/ml for both cell lines.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The establishment of VAFS cell lines provides a tool for the in vitro screening of antitumor drugs. Doxorubicin and mitoxantrone were effective in decreasing the number of viable cells in the 2 cell lines tested. Both of these anthracycline antibiotics have been used to treat various neoplasias in cats, and their efficacy for adjuvant treatment of vaccine-associated sarcomas should be further evaluated. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1354–1357).

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the in vitro sensitivity of 4 vaccine-associated feline sarcoma (VAFS) cell lines to the chemotherapeutic agents vincristine and paclitaxel.

Sample Population—Cell lines derived from 4 VAFS specimens.

Procedure—Cell lines were cultured in vitro and individually exposed to various concentrations of vincristine and paclitaxel. Survival was estimated after 24 and 72 hours of exposure to each drug, and the drug concentrations that resulted in 50 and 90% reduction in number of viable cells (IC50 and IC90, respectively) were calculated.

Results—Both vincristine and paclitaxel had significant dose-dependent effects on the viability of the VAFS cell lines. After 72 hours of drug exposure, the IC50 and IC90 of vincristine for the 4 cell lines were between 0.005 to 0.039 µg/ml and 0.045 to 1.027 µg/ml, respectively. The IC50 and IC90 values for paclitaxel were between 0.037 to 0.092 µg/ml and 2.450 to 15.413 µg/ml, respectively.

Conclusions—Results of pharmacokinetic studies on vincristine and paclitaxel in other species suggest that concentrations greater than the IC50 values may be possible for both drugs in feline patients as well. The drug concentrations at which viable cell numbers were reduced by 90% may also be attained in vivo for some cases, but detailed information is needed regarding the distribution, concentration, duration of availability, and toxicity of various drugs in cats. Carefully chosen combinations of antineoplastic agents need to be screened to identify treatment protocols that may be further evaluated clinically for the treatment of VAFS. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:728–732)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To determine age, breed, sex, body condition score, and diet of dogs and cats examined at private veterinary practices in the United States during 1995, and estimate prevalences of the most common disorders for these animals.

Design

Cross-sectional study.

Animals

31,484 dogs and 15,226 cats examined by veterinary practitioners at 52 private veterinary practices.

Procedure

Information on age, breed, sex, body condition score, diet, and assigned diagnostic codes were collected electronically from participating practices and transferred to a relational database. Prevalence estimates and frequencies for population description were generated using statistical software.

Results

Dental calculus and gingivitis were the most commonly reported disorders. About 7% of dogs and 10% of cats examined by practitioners during the study were considered healthy. Many conditions were common to both species (eg, flea infestation, conjunctivitis, diarrhea, vomiting). Dogs were likely to be examined because of lameness, disk disease, lipoma, and allergic dermatitis. Cats were likely to be examined because of renal disease, cystitis, feline urologic syndrome, and inappetence

Clinical Implications

Results can be used by veterinary practitioners to better understand and anticipate health problems of importance in cats and dogs they examine and to better communicate with clients regarding the most prevalent disorders in cats and dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;214:1336–1341)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

A flow cytometric platelet immunofluorescence assay (fc-pifa) was compared with a previously developed microscopic platelet immunofluorescence assay (mi-pifa) for detection of circulating platelet antibody. Both assays were performed on serum from 10 healthy dogs with normal platelet count, and on serum from 27 thrombocytopenic dogs—18 had primary immune-mediated thrombocytopenia (imt), and 9 had imt in addition to other immune-mediated disease (secondary imt). Both assays yielded negative results for all control dogs. The mi-pifa and fc-pifa results were in agreement in 23 dogs with imt (14 positive and 9 negative). There was linear correlation between mi-pifa scores and fc-pifa results (r = 0.873). Positive results were obtained for 55.5% of the dogs with suspected imt, using the mi-pifa, compared with 67%, using the fc-pifa; however, the difference was not statistically significant. Use of fresh or frozen fixed donor platelets as the antigen source yielded similar results in the fc-pifa.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The medical records of 31 dogs diagnosed with prostatic carcinoma at the teaching hospital between January 1970 and October 1987 were reviewed to determine whether gender status had an effect on the clinical features or biologic behavior of the disease. The only Significant difference between sexually intact and castrated dogs was increased prevalence of pulmonary metastasis in castrated dogs.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association