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Objective

To determine the outcome of horses with suprascapular nerve injury treated with stall rest alone.

Design

Retrospective case series.

Animals

8 horses.

Procedure

Information on signalment, history, limbs affected, severity of lameness, degree of muscle atrophy, gait abnormalities, and results of radiography and electromyography was obtained from medical records. All horses were treated with stall rest. Follow-up information on severity of lameness, gait abnormalities, degree of muscle atrophy, time between injury and resolution of gait abnormalities, and outcome was obtained during reexamination at the hospital or through telephone conversations with owners.

Results

In 4 horses, the injury was a réduit of trauma; in the other 4, the injury was suspected to be a result of trauma. All horses had pronounced instability of the shoulder joint during the weight-bearing phase. Follow-up information was available for 7 horses. Shoulder joint instability resolved in all 7 horses within 3 to 12 months (mean, 7.4 months) after the original injury. Two horses had complete return of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscle mass 15 and 18 months after the injury. Two horses used as broodmares before the injury and 4 of 5 horses used for riding or in race training before the injury were able to return to preinjury activities.

Clinical Implications

Horses with suprascapular nerve injury treated with stall rest alone have a good prognosis for recovery of normal gait and return to performance; however, the recovery period may be prolonged. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;214:1657-1659).

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Breaking strength (torque at failure) of equine third metacarpal bones, with transfixation pins placed parallel in the frontal plane and 30° divergent from the frontal plane, was determined in vitro. Two transfixation pins were placed through the distal metaphysis, using a jig designed to drill the holes in the assigned configuration. Paired metacarpal bones II through IV from 12 horses were tested in torsion. The torsional moment of the force applied through the transfixation pins at failure was compared for each limb. Metacarpal bones with divergent pins were significantly (P = 0.030) stronger, compared with those with parallel pins. Metacarpal bones with parallel pins failed with longitudinal oblique fractures through a proximal bone-pin interface, whereas those with divergent pins failed with more comminuted fractures through multiple bone-pin interfaces.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To evaluate the response to various treatments and long-term outcome of foals with tarsal valgus deformities.

Design

Retrospective study.

Animals

39 foals with tarsal valgus deformities.

Procedure

Data collected from medical records, included signalment, history, reason for admission, and clinical findings. Radiographic views of the tarsus were evaluated for incomplete ossification of tarsal bones and were classified as normal in appearance, type-I incomplete ossification, or type-II incomplete ossification. Treatment and athletic outcome were documented for each foal.

Results

Radiographic assessment revealed that 22 of 39 foals (56%) had concomitant tarsal valgus deformities and incomplete ossification of the tarsal bones. Eight of 19 foals with tarsal valgus deformities that were treated with periosteal stripping responded favorably. Foals ≤ 60 days old were significantly more likely to respond to periosteal stripping than older foals. Five of 8 foals with tarsal valgus deformities that were treated with growth plate retardation responded favorably. Eleven of 21 foals with long-term follow-up performed as intended. Compared with foals with type-II incomplete ossification, foals with tarsal bones that had a normal radiographic appearance or type-I incomplete ossification were significantly more likely to perform as intended.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Foals with tarsal valgus deformities should have lateromedial radiographic views of the tarsus obtained to assess the tarsal bones for incomplete ossification, which will affect athletic outcome. Because foals with typell incomplete ossification of the tarsal bones respond poorly to periosteal stripping alone, treatment by growth-plate retardation is recommended. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215:1481–1484)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine outcome for foals with incomplete ossification of the tarsal bones and to determine whether clinical and radiographic abnormalities at the time of initial examination were associated with outcome.

Design

Retrospective study.

Animals

22 foals.

Procedure

Information on signalment, history, owner’s initial complaint, clinical findings, whether tarsus valgus was evident, and radiographic abnormalities was obtained from medical records. Radiographic lesions were classified as type I (ie, incomplete ossification with < 30% collapse of the affected bones) or type II (incomplete ossification with > 30% collapse and pinching or fragmentation of the affected bones). Follow-up information was obtained via telephone conversations with owners.

Results

Foals were between 1 day and 10 months old when first examined. Eleven were premature (ie, < 320 days of gestation) or were twins. Sixteen had tarsus valgus. Severity of radiographic lesions was associated with outcome; 4 of 6 foals with type-I incomplete ossification of the tarsal bones performed as intended, but only 3 of 16 foals with type-II incomplete ossification of the tarsal bones performed as intended.

Clinical Implications

For foals with incomplete ossification of the tarsal bones, severity of the radiographic lesions was associated with outcome. Foals with type-II incomplete ossification of the tarsal bones have a guarded prognosis for athletic soundness. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:1590–1594)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To compare the axial stability provided by 4 methods of attaching transfixation pins into a fiberglass cast.

Design

Axial stability of 4 methods of transfixation pin attachment to a fiberglass cast cylinder was determined in vitro. Methods of attachment included simple incorporation of the pins into the cast, placement of a washer and nut on the pin and incorporation into the cast, extension of pins beyond the cast and attachment to a steel halo, and washers within the cast and attachment to a steel halo.

Population

A model was designed to simulate a transfixation cast applied to the equine metacarpus. 8 identical constructs were present in each of the 4 groups. 6 fiberglass cylinders were also tested to identify the contribution of the cast cylinder to the overall stability of the transfixation cast.

Procedure

Load-displacement curves were recorded, and a stiffness modulus was calculated for each treatment group and for a simple fiberglass cylinder without transfixation pins.

Result and Conclusion

There was no significant difference among the 4 methods of attachment. The fiberglass cast material appears to be the major determinant of axial stability. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1098–1101)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Axial stability of equine oblique proximal phalangeal osteotomies with application of the standard short limb cast or 1 of 3 configurations of transfixation casts was determined in vitro. Transfixation cast methods included use of parallel pins, divergent pins, or parallel pins incorporating a metal walking bar. Displacement at the osteotomy was recorded for each limb at 4,448 N. Standard short limb casts provided significantly (P = 0.0002) less axial stability than did any form of transfixation cast. Significant differences were not found between the 3 transfixation casts.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Sixteen horses were allotted to 4 groups of 4 horses each to evaluate the effect of tendon sheath lavage with 4 solutions (balanced electrolyte solution, 0.1% povidone-iodine, 0.5% povidone-iodine, and 0.5% chlorhexidine). The synovitis caused by 0.1% povidone-iodine lavage was not appreciably worse than that caused by balanced electrolyte solution lavage, but the 0.5% povidone-iodine and chlorhexidine lavages caused severe synovitis, and, therefore, should not be used for tendon sheath lavage.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research