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Objective—To design and fabricate fiberglass-reinforced composite (FRC) replicas of a canine radius and compare their mechanical properties with those of radii from dog cadavers.

Sample—Replicas based on 3 FRC formulations with 33%, 50%, or 60% short-length discontinuous fiberglass by weight (7 replicas/group) and 5 radii from large (> 30-kg) dog cadavers.

Procedures—Bones and FRC replicas underwent nondestructive mechanical testing including 4-point bending, axial loading, and torsion and destructive testing to failure during 4-point bending. Axial, internal and external torsional, and bending stiffnesses were calculated. Axial pullout loads for bone screws placed in the replicas and cadaveric radii were also assessed.

Results—Axial, internal and external torsional, and 4-point bending stiffnesses of FRC replicas increased significantly with increasing fiberglass content. The 4-point bending stiffness of 33% and 50% FRC replicas and axial and internal torsional stiffnesses of 33% FRC replicas were equivalent to the cadaveric bone stiffnesses. Ultimate 4-point bending loads did not differ significantly between FRC replicas and bones. Ultimate screw pullout loads did not differ significantly between 33% or 50% FRC replicas and bones. Mechanical property variability (coefficient of variation) of cadaveric radii was approximately 2 to 19 times that of FRC replicas, depending on loading protocols.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Within the range of properties tested, FRC replicas had mechanical properties equivalent to and mechanical property variability less than those of radii from dog cadavers. Results indicated that FRC replicas may be a useful alternative to cadaveric bones for biomechanical testing of canine bone constructs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


To describe and compare data from Thoroughbreds that sustained musculoskeletal injuries while racing with data from matched control horses.


Matched case-control study.


216 Thoroughbreds that sustained a musculoskeletal injury while racing and 532 horses from the same races that were not injured.


Data regarding racing history, race-entrant characteristics, racing events determined by analysis of videotapes of races, and results of prerace physical inspections were determined for all horses. Injured horses were compared with control horses by using conditional logistic regression.


Results of prerace inspection by regulatory veterinarians were significantly associated with injury. Odds of musculoskeletal injury, injury of the suspensory apparatus of the forellmb, and injury of the tendon of the superficial digital flexor muscle of the forelimb were 5.5 to 13.5 times greater among horses assessed to be at increased risk of injury by regulatory veterinarians on the basis of results of prerace inspection than for horses not considered to be at increased risk of injury. Odds of an abnormal finding in the suspensory ligament during prerace inspection were 3.4 times greater among horses that injured the suspensory apparatus than among control horses, and odds of an abnormal finding in the tendon of the superficial digital flexor muscle during prerace inspection were 15 times greater among horses that njured the tendon than among control horses.

Clinical Implications—

Regulatory veterinarians can identify horses during prerace physical inspection that have an increased risk of injury during races. Prerace physical inspections could be used to reduce the risk of injury to Thoroughbreds during races. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:454–463)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To evaluate outcomes in cats undergoing subtotal colectomy for the treatment of idiopathic megacolon and to determine whether removal versus nonremoval of the ileocecocolic junction (ICJ) was associated with differences in outcome.


166 client-owned cats.


For this retrospective cohort study, medical records databases of 18 participating veterinary hospitals were searched to identify records of cats with idiopathic megacolon treated by subtotal colectomy from January 2000 to December 2018. Data collection included perioperative and surgical variables, complications, outcome, and owner perception of the procedure. Data were analyzed for associations with outcomes of interest, and Kaplan-Meier survival time analysis was performed.


Major perioperative complications occurred in 9.9% (15/151) of cats, and 14% (12/87) of cats died as a direct result of treatment or complications of megacolon. The median survival time was not reached. Cats with (vs without) a body condition score < 4/9 (hazard ratio [HR], 5.97), preexisting heart disease (HR, 3.21), major perioperative complications (HR, 27.8), or long-term postoperative liquid feces (HR, 10.4) had greater hazard of shorter survival time. Constipation recurrence occurred in 32% (24/74) of cats at a median time of 344 days and was not associated with retention versus removal of the ICJ; however, ICJ removal was associated with long-term liquid feces (OR, 3.45), and a fair or poor outcome on owner assessment (OR, 3.6).


Results indicated that subtotal colectomy was associated with long survival times and a high rate of owner satisfaction. Removal of the ICJ was associated with less favorable outcomes in cats of the present study.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association