Objective—To determine interclinician agreement
when assessing remission of lymphoma in dogs and
the association among results of clinicians' assessments
via lymph node palpation, cytologic examination
of fine-needle lymph node aspirates, and flow
cytometry as determinants of remission.
Animals—23 dogs with untreated lymphoma.
Procedure—Two clinicians independently measured
large lymph nodes and cytologic examination and flow
cytometry of cells from a mandibular or popliteal lymph
node were performed 1 week prior to initiating treatment.
Lymph node measurements with clinicians'
remission assessments and cytologic examination
were repeated at weeks 2, 3, and 5; flow cytometry
was repeated at week 5.
Results—Significant correlation was identified
between clinicians' remission assessments. Significant
correlation between lymph node palpation and
cytologic examination was identified at week 5, but
not at weeks 2 and 3. Lymphoma was diagnosed in
16 of 23 (70%) dogs at initial evaluation by use of
flow cytometry, although it was of limited use at
subsequent evaluations and results were not diagnostic
of lymphoma in any dog at week 5, including
1 dog in which lymphoma was diagnosed cytologically.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results
suggested that physical examination and measurement
of lymph node volume may not be sufficient
for accurately determining remission, that flow
cytometry alone should not be relied on as a means
for diagnosis, and that cytologic examination of fineneedle
lymph node aspirates should be considered
as the most accurate means of determining remission
status at times in which treatment modifications
are considered. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:562–566)
Objective—To estimate the annual cost of infections
attributable to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome
(PRRS) virus to US swine producers.
Sample Population—Data on the health and productivity
of PRRS-affected and PRRS-unaffected breeding
herds and growing-pig populations were collected
from a convenience sample of swine farms in the
midwestern United States.
Procedure—Health and productivity variables of
PRRS-affected and PRRS-unaffected swine farms
were analyzed to estimate the impact of PRRS on
specific farms. National estimates of PRRS incidence
were then used to determine the annual economic
impact of PRRS on US swine producers.
Results—PRRS affected breeding herds and growing-pig
populations as measured by a decrease in reproductive
health, an increase in deaths, and reductions
in the rate and efficiency of growth. Total annual economic
impact of these effects on US swine producers
was estimated at $66.75 million in breeding herds and
$493.57 million in growing-pig populations.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—PRRS imposes
a substantial financial burden on US swine producers
and causes approximately $560.32 million in
losses each year. By comparison, prior to eradication,
annual losses attributable to classical swine fever
(hog cholera) and pseudorabies were estimated at
$364.09 million and $36.27 million, respectively
(adjusted on the basis of year 2004 dollars). Current
PRRS control strategies are not predictably successful;
thus, PRRS-associated losses will continue into
the future. Research to improve our understanding of
ecologic and epidemiologic characteristics of the
PRRS virus and technologic advances (vaccines and
diagnostic tests) to prevent clinical effects are warranted.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:385–392)
Objective—To characterize the signalment, clinical
signs, biological behavior, and response to treatment
of carcinoma of the apocrine glands of the anal sac in
Animals—113 dogs with histologically confirmed carcinoma
of the apocrine glands of the anal sac.
Procedure—Data on signalment, clinical signs, and
staging were reviewed and analyzed along with treatment
modality for potential association with survival
Results—Sex distribution was approximately equal
(54% female, 46% male). One hundred four dogs
underwent treatment consisting of surgery, radiation
therapy, chemotherapy, or multimodal treatment.
Median survival for treated dogs was 544 days (range,
0 to 1,873 days). Dogs treated with chemotherapy
alone had significantly shorter survival (median, 212
days) than those receiving other treatments (median,
584 days). Dogs not treated with surgery had significantly
shorter survival (median, 402 days) than those
that underwent surgery as part of their treatment
(median, 548 days). Dogs with tumors ≥ 10 cm2 had
significantly shorter survival (median, 292 days) than
dogs with tumors ≥ 10 cm2 (median, 584 days).
Hypercalcemia was identified in 27% (n = 29) of dogs,
and those dogs had significantly shorter survival (median,
256 days), compared with those that were normocalcemic
(median, 584 days). Dogs with pulmonary
metastasis had significantly shorter survival (median,
219 days) than dogs without evidence of pulmonary
metastasis (median, 548 days).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Unlike most
previous reports, this study revealed an approximately
equal sex distribution, and results suggest a more
favorable prognosis. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:
OBJECTIVE To determine effects of prosthetic laryngoplasty on return to racing, performance index, and career longevity in racing Quarter Horses with recurrent laryngeal neuropathy (RLN) and to evaluate performance variables for horses with RLN undergoing prosthetic laryngoplasty, compared with a control horse population.
DESIGN Multicenter, retrospective cohort study.
ANIMALS 162 racing Quarter Horses with RLN treated with prosthetic laryngoplasty (case horses) and 324 racing Quarter Horse without RLN (control horses).
PROCEDURES Medical and race records of case and control horses examined at 5 referral centers between January 2000 and December 2015 were reviewed retrospectively. Two control horses were matched with each case horse. Return to racing, earnings, number of racing starts, performance index, and career longevity were evaluated.
RESULTS The odds of returning to racing did not differ significantly between case and control horses but decreased with increasing age. Neither racing starts nor career longevity were affected by prosthetic laryngoplasty or by RLN grade. In fact, horses undergoing laryngoplasty for treatment of RLN and horses with the lowest RLN grade before surgery had higher performance indices after the surgery, compared with indices for control horses.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The faster speeds and shorter distances raced with Quarter Horses could alter how RLN impacts respiratory variables and performance in Quarter Horses, compared with other racehorse breeds. Further study is needed to understand the impacts of RLN and surgical treatments for RLN in racing Quarter Horses.