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  • Author or Editor: Jeffrey J. Thomason x
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Abstract

Objective—To quantitate changes in hoof wall growth and hoof morphology induced by mild exercise in Standardbreds.

Animals—18 Standardbreds.

Procedures—Horses were exercised at approximately 6 m/s (4,200 to 5,600 m/d) on 4 d/wk for 17 weeks. Both exercise (n = 9) and nonexercise (control group; 9) groups were housed in a large paddock throughout the study. At the beginning and end of the study, right forelimb feet of all horses were digitally photographed and underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Hoof wall measurements were obtained from the images to evaluate hoof wall growth and morphometric variables. Data were compared between the groups and within each group via a quadratic model. Changes in each variable and pairwise correlations between variables were evaluated.

Results—Morphometric variables did not significantly differ between the control and exercise groups. However, differences within each group between the start and the end of the study were significant for several variables; overall, values for hoof wall variables increased and those for solar variables decreased. Between the beginning and the end of the study, the amount of variation in values of hoof capsule variables in the exercise group decreased to a greater extent, compared with control group findings. Patterns of pairwise correlations for variables differed between the groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In Standardbreds, mild exercise for 17 weeks caused no significant changes in hoof wall growth or morphometric variables. Subtle changes may develop in equine hooves in response to loading, and mild exercise may not be a strong adaptive stimulus.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To identify potential risk factors for agility-related injuries among dogs.

Design—Internet-based, retrospective, cross-sectional survey.

Animals—3,801 privately owned dogs participating in agility training or trials.

Procedures—A retrospective electronic survey was used to investigate potential risk factors for injury among dogs participating in agility-related activities. Respondents were handlers recruited through member lists of large canine agility associations in Canada and the United Kingdom and through promotion on an agility blog site. Variables evaluated included demographic information for handlers and dogs, exposure variables (eg, frequency of agility practice and competition in the past year), and use of preventive measures intended to keep dogs fit for agility (warmup, cooldown, or conditioning exercises; alternative therapeutic treatments [eg, acupuncture, massage, or chiropractic care]; or dietary supplement products).

Results—Data were collected from 1,669 handlers of 3,801 agility dogs internationally; 1,209 (32%) dogs incurred ≥ 1 injury. Previous injury (OR, 100.5), ≤ 4 years of agility experience for dogs (OR, 1.5), use of alternative therapeutic treatments (OR, 1.5), and Border Collie breed (OR, 1.7) were associated with increased odds of injury. Handlers having 5 to 10 or > 10 years of experience (OR, 0.8 and 0.6, respectively) and dogs having > 4 years of experience in the sport (OR, 0.6) were associated with decreased odds of injury.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Specific factors were associated with agility-related injuries in dogs. Educational prevention strategies should target at-risk populations in an effort to reduce potential injuries. Future research should focus on the biomechanical factors associated with agility-related injuries.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To characterize injuries (on the basis of type and severity of injury and affected region of the body) among dogs participating in agility training and competition events and examine associations between injury characteristics and perceived causes of injury.

Design—Internet-based, retrospective, cross-sectional survey.

Animals—3,801 privately owned dogs participating in agility training or trials.

Procedures—A retrospective electronic survey was developed to investigate demographic factors for dogs and handlers, frequency of participation in agility training and competition, and perceived causes and characteristics of injuries acquired by dogs during agility-related activities. Respondents were handlers recruited through member lists of large canine agility associations in Canada and the United Kingdom and through promotion on an agility blog site. Associations between cause and anatomic site or type of injury and between injury severity (mild vs severe) and setting (competition vs practice) were investigated.

Results—Surveys were received from 1,669 handlers of 3,801 agility dogs internationally. Handler-reported data indicated 1,209 of 3,801 (32%) dogs had ≥ 1 injury; of 1,523 analyzed injuries, the shoulder (349 injuries), back (282), and neck (189) regions and phalanges (202) were predominantly affected. Soft tissue injuries (eg, strain [muscle or tendon injury; 807], sprain [ligament injury; 312], and contusion [200]) were common. Injuries were most commonly incurred during interactions with bar jumps, A-frames, and dog walk obstacles (260, 235, and 177 of 1,602 injuries, respectively). Anatomic site and type of injury were significantly associated with perceived cause of injury.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These findings provided a basis for further experimental studies to identify specific mechanisms of various types of injury in dogs that participate in agility activities.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To develop and determine the feasibility of a novel minimally invasive technique for percutaneous catheterization and embolization of the thoracic duct (PCETD) in dogs and to determine thoricic duct TD pressure at rest and during short-term balloon occlusion of the cranial vena cava (CrVC).

Animals—Fifteen 7- to 11-month-old healthy mixed-breed dogs.

Procedures—Efferent intestinal lymphangiography was performed, and the cisterna chyli was punctured with a trochar needle percutaneously under fluoroscopic guidance. When access was successful, a guide wire was directed into the TD through the needle and a vascular access sheath was advanced over the guide wire. Thoracic duct pressure was measured at rest and during acute balloon occlusion of the CrVC. The TD was then embolized cranial to the diaphragm with a combination of microcoils and cyanoacrylate or ethylene vinyl alcohol.

Results—Successful puncture of the cisterna chyli with advancement of a wire into the TD was possible in 9 of 15 dogs, but successful catheterization was possible in only 5 of 9 dogs. Acute balloon occlusion of the CrVC led to a substantial TD pressure increase in 4 of 4 dogs, and embolization of the TD was successful in 4 of 4 dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—PCETD can successfully be performed in healthy dogs; however, this minimally invasive technique cannot currently be recommended for routine treatment of chylothorax, in part because of the technically demanding nature of the procedure. An increase in jugular venous pressure led to an increase in TD pressure, potentially predisposing some dogs to developing chylothorax.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research