You are looking at 1 - 10 of 23 items for
- Author or Editor: Jeffrey J. Runge x
- Refine by Access: All Content x
Objective—To describe the use of thoracoscopic-assisted pulmonary surgery (TAPS) for partial and complete lung lobectomy in small animal patients and to evaluate short-term outcome.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—11 client-owned dogs and cats.
Procedures—Medical records of dogs and cats that underwent a partial or complete TAPS lung lobectomy were reviewed. All patients underwent general anesthesia and were positioned in lateral recumbency with the affected hemithorax uppermost. One-lung ventilation was not implemented in any patient. For initial exploration, a 5- to 10-mm incision was made for insertion of a 30° telescope approximately 5 to 7 rib spaces away from the site of the pulmonary lesion in the dorsal third of the thorax. All subsequent incision placements were case dependent and determined by the location of the lesion to be resected. Following lesion localization, a 2- to 7-cm minithoracotomy incision was made with direct thoracoscopic visualization without the use of rigid rib retractors. In 10 of 11 patients, a 360° wound retraction device was placed at the minithoracotomy site prior to exteriorization and resection of the affected lung. Lymph nodes were inspected intraoperatively, but biopsies were not performed; incisions were closed routinely, and a thoracostomy tube was placed in all patients.
Results—3 cats and 8 dogs underwent successful partial (5) or complete (6) TAPS lung lobectomy over a 5-year period (2008 through 2013). Median surgery time was 92.7 minutes (range, 77 to 150 minutes). Thoracostomy tubes were removed a median of 22.3 hours after surgery (range, 18 to 36 hours). The median time to discharge was 3.1 days (range, 1 to 6 days). No intraoperative complications were encountered. All patients were discharged from the hospital, with 9 of 11 patients alive 6 months after surgery.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this study suggested that lung lobectomy by means of TAPS can be successfully performed in dogs and cats. When compared with total thoracoscopic surgery, TAPS may offer a more technically feasible approach from both a surgical and anesthetic standpoint, because it provides the benefits of minimally invasive thoracic surgery without the necessity of 1-lung ventilation.
OBJECTIVE To compare outcomes for laparoscopic ovariectomy (LapOVE) and laparoscopic-assisted ovariohysterectomy (LapOVH) in dogs.
DESIGN Retrospective case series.
ANIMALS 278 female dogs.
PROCEDURES Medical records of female dogs that underwent laparoscopic sterilization between 2003 and 2013 were reviewed. History, signalment, results of physical examination, results of preoperative diagnostic testing, details of the surgical procedure, durations of anesthesia and surgery, intraoperative and immediate postoperative (ie, during hospitalization) complications, and short- (≤ 14 days after surgery) and long-term (> 14 days after surgery) outcomes were recorded. Data for patients undergoing LapOVE versus LapOVH were compared.
RESULTS Intraoperative and immediate postoperative complications were infrequent, and incidence did not differ between groups. Duration of surgery for LapOVE was significantly less than that for LapOVH; however, potential confounders were not assessed. Surgical site infection was identified in 3 of 224 (1.3%) dogs. At the time of long-term follow-up, postoperative urinary incontinence was reported in 7 of 125 (5.6%) dogs that underwent LapOVE and 12 of 82 (14.6%) dogs that underwent LapOVH. None of the dogs had reportedly developed estrus or pyometra by the time of final follow-up. Overall, 205 of 207 (99%) owners were satisfied with the surgery, and 196 of 207 (95%) would consider laparoscopic sterilization for their dogs in the future.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that short- and long-term outcomes were similar for female dogs undergoing sterilization by means of LapOVE or LapOVH; however, surgery time may have been shorter for dogs that underwent LapOVE. Most owners were satisfied with the outcome of laparoscopic sterilization.
Objective—To describe the use of transvesicular percutaneous cystolithotomy for the retrieval of cystic and urethral calculi and to report the outcome in dogs and cats.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—23 dogs and 4 cats.
Procedures—Medical records were reviewed for signalment, procedure time, stone number, stone location, pre- and postoperative radiographs, procedure-associated complications, and short-term outcome. A ventral midline approach was made into the abdomen over the urinary bladder apex. A screw cannula was inserted at the bladder apex for normograde rigid and flexible cystourethroscopy. All uroliths were removed via a stone basket device and retrograde flushing and suction. Long-term follow-up (1 year after surgery) information was obtained by telephone or e-mail contact with owners.
Results—27 animals with cystic and urethral calculi were included. Median patient weight was 8.3 kg (18.3 lb; range, 1.8 to 42.6 kg [4.0 to 93.7 lb]). Urolith number ranged from 1 to > 35 (median, 7). Urolith size ranged from < 1 to 30 mm (median, 4.5 mm). Fifteen of the 27 animals had a previous cystotomy (range, 1 to 5 procedures). Median procedure time was 66 minutes (range, 50 to 80 minutes). All patients were discharged within 24 hours. No postoperative complications were reported at the time of suture removal. At the time of long-term follow-up, the 22 clients that could be contacted were satisfied with the procedure.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Transvesicular percutaneous cystolithotomy may decrease the need for urethrotomy, serial transurethral endoscopic procedures, and abdominal insufflation associated with other minimally invasive interventions currently available. This procedure also provided excellent visualization for bladder and urethral luminal inspection.
Objective—To define the learning curve and evaluate the outcome for a board-certified veterinary surgeon performing laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) ovariectomy in dogs.
Design—Retrospective case review and learning curve evaluation with a skill acquisition model.
Animals—27 client-owned dogs.
Procedures—Between April 2011 and December 2012, 27 dogs underwent elective LESS ovariectomy performed by a single experienced board-certified laparoscopic surgeon by means of the same technique. Medical records for these patients were reviewed to determine whether a learning curve could be detected. A commercially available multitrocar port was inserted through a 15- to 20-mm incision at the umbilicus, and LESS ovariectomy was performed with articulating graspers, a bipolar vessel-sealing device, and a 30° telescope. Surgical performance of the surgeon was quantified with an exponential skill acquisition model, and how skill was gained with repetition of the same novel surgical procedure was examined.
Results—Median patient body weight was 20 kg (44 lb; range, 3.5 to 41 kg [7.7 to 90.2 lb]). Median surgical time was 35 minutes (range, 20 to 80 minutes). Median patient age was 314 days (range, 176 to 2,913 days). The skill acquisition model revealed that a comparable surgeon could reach 90% of optimal surgery performance after approximately 8 procedures (8.6, 95% confidence interval, 0.5 to 16.6 procedures). According to the model, with each surgery, surgical time would be expected to decrease by 27% (95% confidence interval, 2% to 52%). Complications were limited to minor hemorrhage due to a splenic laceration and a postoperative incisional infection. Follow-up information was available for all 27 cases. All owners were satisfied and indicated that they would pursue LESS ovariectomy again.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The learning curve for LESS ovariectomy was short and definable. Short-term outcome was excellent. Results of this study suggested that an experienced laparoscopic surgeon may anticipate achieving proficiency with this technique after performing approximately 8 procedures.
To determine if computed tomographic lymphangiography (CTL) after ultrasound-guided percutaneous injection of intrahepatic iopamidol (Isovue 370) in healthy cats would safely and effectively lead to opacification of the hepatic lymphatics, cisterna chyli, and thoracic ducts (TDs).
A prospective pilot study design with randomization of the sides of the liver injected.
6 purpose-bred cats.
Cats were anesthetized and based on random assignment, and the left or right liver was injected with iodinated contrast material. CTL images were taken at 5, 10, and 15 minutes postinjection to determine the quality of opacification of the cisterna chyli and TDs.
Eleven hepatic injections from 6 cats were available for review. One CT file was corrupted and unusable. Seven out of 11 hepatic contrast injections yielded a diagnostic study. Five out of 11 were graded as excellent, 0/11 were graded as good, and 2/11 were graded as fair. Opacification of the cisterna chyli and TDs was absent in 4/11 studies. Three out of 6 cats had mild to moderate increases in hepatocellular enzymes when assayed 3 months postprocedure. The hepatic lymphatics, cisterna chyli, and TDs were opacified in all studies deemed diagnostic.
Intrahepatic contrast injection offers a novel portal for thoracic duct lymphangiography that documents the hepatic contribution to the mesenteric lymphatics, cisterna chyli, and thoracic duct. The procedure may be helpful in the preoperative diagnostic evaluation of cats with chylothorax.
Objective—To characterize the clinical features and outcome of cats treated for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) with attenuation (extravascular or intravascular) versus medical treatment only.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—28 client-owned cats with congenital PDA.
Procedures—Medical records for cats with PDA diagnosed by means of echocardiography were reviewed. Data retrieved included signalment; history; clinical signs; results of physical examination, ECG, echocardiography, and thoracic radiography; response to medical management if attempted; type of attenuation procedure if attempted (surgical or intravascular); procedural details; intraoperative and postoperative (≤ 2 weeks) complications; and long-term (> 2 weeks) complications. Follow-up was obtained from medical records and via telephone interviews.
Results—All 28 cats were referred for evaluation of a cardiac murmur, but 17 of 26 (65%) for which initial clinical signs were available did not have overt signs at initial evaluation. Multiple congenital cardiac defects were identified in 6 of 23 (26%) cats. Seventeen of 26 (65%) cats were documented as treated with 1 or more vascular attenuation procedures; vascular attenuation was not attempted in 11 cats receiving an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or loop diuretic (n = 2) or no medical treatment (9). Surgical ligation was successful in 11 of 15 cats, and coil embolization was successful in 2 cats. Procedural or postoperative complications included death (n = 2), left-sided laryngeal paralysis (2), voice change (1), fever (1), hemorrhage (4), and chylothorax (1). Long-term follow-up was available for 16 of 28 (57%) cats. Three of 4 cats that did not undergo surgical attenuation died of cardiac-related disease.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that PDA occurs rarely in cats, and clinical signs and diagnostic findings were consistent with those previously reported for dogs. Surgical versus nonsurgical treatment did not result in a significant difference in life expectancy in this small cohort. Evaluation of laryngeal function after surgical ligation is recommended. Further study of the outcome associated with various treatment options in a larger population of patients is recommended.
Objective—To describe the operative technique for single-port laparoscopic cryptorchidectomy (SPLC) in dogs and cats and evaluate clinical outcome for patients that underwent the procedure.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—25 client-owned dogs (n = 22) and cats (3).
Procedures—Dogs and cats that underwent SPLC with 3 commercially available single-port devices between 2009 and 2014 were retrospectively identified through a multi-institutional medical records review. Surgery was performed via a single-port device placed through a 1.5- to 3.0-cm abdominal incision either at the region of the umbilicus or caudal to the right 13th rib. The cryptorchidectomy was performed with graspers, a bipolar vessel sealing device, and a 30° telescope.
Results—SPLC was performed with a single-incision laparoscopic surgery port (n = 15), a multitrocar wound-retractor access system (8), or a metal resterilizable single-port access device (2). Median age was 365 days (range, 166 to 3,285 days). Median body weight was 18.9 kg (41.6 lb; range, 1.3 to 70 kg [2.9 to 154 lb]). Median surgical time was 38 minutes (range, 15 to 70 minutes). Thirty-two testes were removed (12 left, 6 right, and 7 bilateral). Four patients had 1 additional abdominal surgical procedure performed concurrently during SPLC. No intraoperative or postoperative complications were encountered.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that SPLC can be performed in a wide range of dogs and cats with cryptorchidism and can be combined with other elective laparoscopic surgical procedures. The SPLC technique was associated with a low morbidity rate and provided a potentially less invasive alternative to traditional open and multiport laparoscopic techniques.
OBJECTIVE To describe the operative technique and perioperative outcome for laparoscopic-assisted splenectomy (LAS) in dogs.
DESIGN Retrospective case series.
ANIMALS 18 client-owned dogs.
PROCEDURES Medical records of dogs with naturally occurring disease of the spleen treated by means of LAS between 2012 and 2014 were reviewed. History, signalment, results of physical examination, results of preoperative diagnostic testing, details of surgical technique, intraoperative findings including results of abdominal exploration and staging, concurrent surgical procedures, complications, histopathologic diagnoses, duration of postoperative hospitalization, and perioperative outcome were recorded. The perioperative period was defined as the time from hospital admission for LAS until discharge or death (within the same visit).
RESULTS All dogs underwent initial abdominal exploration and staging via multiple 5-mm laparoscopic ports (n = 2) or a single commercially available multichannel port (16), followed by minilaparotomy with insertion of a wound retraction device, progressive exteriorization of the spleen, sealing of hilar vessels, and splenectomy. Splenectomy was performed for treatment of a splenic mass (n = 15), suspected neoplasia (2), or refractory immune-mediated disease (1). Median size (width × length) of splenic masses was 5 × 5 cm (range, 1.6 to 11.0 cm × 1.5 to 14.5 cm). Complications were limited to minor intraoperative hemorrhage in 1 dog; no patient required conversion to open laparotomy.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that LAS was technically feasible in dogs and not associated with major complications. Further evaluation is required; however, in appropriately selected patients, LAS may offer the benefits of a minimally invasive technique, including a smaller incision and improved illumination and magnification during exploration and staging.
To determine the optimal intercostal space (ICS) for thoracoscopic-assisted pulmonary surgery for lung lobectomy in cats.
8 cat cadavers.
Cadavers were placed in lateral recumbency. A 5-cm minithoracotomy incision was made in the middle third of ICS 4 through 7 on the left side and 4 through 8 on the right side, and a wound retractor device was placed. A camera port was made in the middle third of ICS 9. Each lung lobe was sequentially exteriorized at each respective ICS. A thoracoabdominal stapler was placed to simulate a lung lobectomy, and distance from the stapler anvil to the hilus was measured.
For the left cranial lung lobe, there was no significant difference in median distance from the stapler anvil to the pulmonary hilus for ICS 4 through 6. Simulated lobectomy of the left caudal lung lobe performed at ICS 5 and 6 resulted in a significantly shorter distance, compared with lobectomy performed at ICS 4 and 7. Simulated lobectomy of the right cranial and right middle lung lobes performed at ICS 4 and 5 resulted in a significantly shorter distance, compared with lobectomy performed at ICS 7. Simulated lobectomy of the accessory and right caudal lung lobes at ICS 5 and 6 resulted in a significantly shorter distance than for lobectomy performed at ICS 8.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
An optimal ICS for a minithoracotomy incision was determined for thoracoscopic-assisted lung lobectomy in cats.
OBJECTIVE To describe the operative technique, complications, and conversion rates for laparoscopic liver biopsy (LLB) in dogs and evaluate short-term clinical outcome for dogs that underwent the procedure.
DESIGN Retrospective case series.
ANIMALS 106 client-owned dogs.
PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed to identify dogs that underwent an LLB with a single-port or multiport technique at either of 2 veterinary teaching hospitals from August 2003 to September 2013. Demographic and laboratory data, preoperative administration of fresh frozen plasma, procedural and diagnostic information, intraoperative complications, and survival to discharge were recorded. The LLB specimens were obtained with 5-mm laparoscopic biopsy cup forceps and a grasp-and-twist technique.
RESULTS Prior to surgery, 25 of 94 (27%) dogs had coagulopathy (prothrombin time or partial thromboplastin time greater than the facility reference ranges, regardless of platelet count). Twenty-one dogs were thrombocytopenic, 14 had ascites, and 14 received fresh frozen plasma transfusion before surgery. In all cases, biopsy samples collected were of sufficient size and quality for histopathologic evaluation. Two dogs required conversion to an open laparotomy because of splenic laceration during initial port placement. One hundred one of 106 dogs survived to discharge; 5 were euthanized during hospitalization owing to progression of liver disease and poor prognosis.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Single-port and multiport LLB were found to be effective, minimally invasive diagnostic techniques with a low rate of complications. Results suggested LLB can be safely used in dogs with underlying coagulopathies and advanced liver disease.