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  • Author or Editor: Jeffrey B. Bender x
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Abstract

Objective—To characterize onset and clinical signs of polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM) in a welldefined population of affected Quarter Horses, identify risk factors for PSSM, determine compliance of owners to dietary and exercise recommendations, and evaluate the efficacy of dietary and exercise recommendations.

Animals—40 Quarter Horses with PSSM and 37 unaffected control horses.

Procedures—Owners of horses with PSSM completed a retrospective questionnaire concerning their horse's condition.

Results—Between horses with PSSM and control horses, no significant differences were found in sex distribution (21 vs 15 females and 16 vs 22 males, respectively), temperament, muscle build, diet, or amount of turnout. In horses with PSSM, signs of muscle stiffness, muscle fasciculations, sweating, exercise intolerance, weakness, muscle wasting, reluctance to move, colic, abnormal gait, recumbency, lameness, and swollen muscles began between the age of 1 day and 14 years (mean age, 4.9 ± 3.5 years). Five horses with PSSM developed acute muscle atrophy. Sixty-three percent (25/40) of owners fed the recommended diet, 55% (22/40) provided regular exercise, and 40% (16/40) followed both dietary and exercise recommendations. Owners of affected horses for which a decrease in severity or frequency of PSSM was not found did not follow the exercise, dietary, or both recommendations. All horses for which both dietary and exercise recommendations were followed had improvement in signs of PSSM.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In addition to exertional rhabdomyolysis, signs of PSSM include acute muscle atrophy and gait abnormalities. It appears that PSSM can be managed by following dietary recommendations combined with gradual increases in daily exercise. (Am J Vet Res 2003; 64:1319–1327)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To describe the epidemiologic features of Camp-ylobacter infection among cats in the Minneapolis–Saint Paul metropolitan area.

Design—Prevalence survey.

Animals—152 cats examined at 3 private veterinary clinics and an animal humane society.

Procedures—Fecal samples were submitted for bacterial culture for Campylobacter spp. To determine the duration of Campylobacter carriage, follow-up fecal samples were collected from cats with positive Campylobacter culture results.

ResultsCampylobacter organisms were cultured from 37 of the 152 (24%) fecal samples. Campylobacter isolates were identified as Campylobacter upsaliensis (29 cats), Campylobacter jejuni (2), and Campylobacter coli (1); species of the remaining 5 isolates could not be determined. Campylobacter organisms were isolated from 36 of the 122 (30%) cats that were ≤ 1 year old but from only 1 of the 30 (3%) cats that were > 1 year old, and shedding was more common during the summer and fall months. No association between Campylobacter shedding and clinical signs of disease was identified. For 4 of 13 cats from which follow-up fecal samples were obtained, duration of Campylobacter carriage could not be determined because Campylobacterorganisms were isolated from all follow-up samples. For the remaining 9 cats, median duration of Campylobacter carriage was 44 days.

Conclusions and Clinical RelevanceC upsaliensis can commonly be isolated from the feces of overtly healthy kittens in the Midwest United States. Because carriage may be prolonged, veterinarians should encourage good hand hygiene among owners of cats, especially among owners with new kittens in their household. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:544–547).

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To describe the occurrence of fecal shedding, persistence of shedding over time, and serogroup classification of Salmonella spp on a large number of dairy farms of various sizes.

Design—Longitudinal study.

Sample Population—22,417 fecal samples from cattle and 4,570 samples from the farm environment on 110 organic and conventional dairy farms in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, and New York.

Procedure—5 visits were made to each farm at 2-month intervals from August 2000 to October 2001. Fecal samples from healthy cows, calves, and other targeted cattle groups and samples from bulk tank milk, milk line filters, water, feed sources, and pen floors were collected at each visit. Bacterial culture was performed at 1 laboratory.

ResultsSalmonella spp were isolated from 4.8% of fecal samples and 5.9% of environmental samples; 92.7% of farms had at least 1 Salmonella-positive sample. The 75th percentile for median within-herd prevalence of Salmonella spp in cattle for 5 sampling visits to a given farm was 2.0% and for maximum within-herd prevalence of Salmonella spp was 13.6%. Farms with a median within-herd prevalence of Salmonella spp of ≥ 2.0% accounted for 76.3% of Salmonella-positive samples. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of Salmonella spp between conventional and organic farms. Seasonal differences in Salmonella shedding were observed. More farms had at least 1 serogroup B isolate than any other serogroup, whereas serogroup E1 was the most common among all Salmonella-positive samples. More than 1 serogroup was isolated on 76.4% of Salmonella-positive farms.

Conclusions and Clinical RelevanceSalmonella spp were isolated from > 90% of dairy farms; however, 25% of farms accounted for > 75% of Salmonella-positive samples. This information is critical for the direction of intervention strategies to decrease the prevalence of Salmonella spp on dairy farms. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:567–573)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association