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  • Author or Editor: Jeffery A. Carroll x
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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effect of various environmental temperatures (ET) on the ability of neonatal pigs to cope with an endotoxin challenge.

Animals—28 crossbred male pigs that were 24 hours old.

Procedure—At 24 hours of age, pigs were placed in environmentally controlled chambers maintained at 18 or 34 C (14 pigs/ET). Rectal temperatures (RT) were recorded at 15-minute intervals for 3 hours following an IP injection of 0.9% NaCl (7 control pigs/ET) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 150 µg/kg of body weight; 7 LPS-treated pigs/ET). Tissue specimens and blood samples were collected following the 3-hour challenge period.

Results—LPS-treated pigs exposed to 18 C had a period of hypothermia whereas RT for LPS-treated pigs at 34 C did not differ from control pigs. The LPS-treated pigs maintained at 18 C lost the most body weight during the 3-hour period and also had the greatest increase in serum cortisol concentration. Serum prolactin (PRL) concentration was decreased in pigs at 18 C, compared with pigs at 34 C. Challenge with LPS resulted in an increase in serum PRL concentration at 18 C but had no effect on serum PRL at 34 C. Challenge with LPS resulted in an increase in expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin- 1 beta, and interleukin-6 receptor mRNA in the hypothalamus.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Exposure to a cold ET can inhibit the ability of neonatal pigs to cope with an exogenous endotoxin challenge. When combined, cold stress and exposure to exogenous endotoxin induces a rapid and potentially dangerous loss of body temperature in neonatal pigs. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:561–566)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the endocrine and immune responses of steers challenged with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV).

Animals—12 crossbred beef steers.

Procedures—Steers were randomly assigned to IBRV– (control) or IBRV+ treatment groups. Experimentally challenged steers (IBRV+) received a dose of IBRV intranasally (8.0 50% tissue culture infective doses), IBRV– steers received a saline (0.9% NaCl) solution placebo intranasally, and each group was placed in an isolated paddock. At 72 hours after challenge, all steers were fitted with indwelling jugular catheters and placed into individual stanchions. Blood samples were collected on days 4 through 8. Serum was analyzed for concentrations of cortisol, interleukin-6, interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor I.

Results—From 72 to 144 hours after challenge inoculation, the IBRV+ group had significantly greater mean rectal temperature, compared with the IBRV– group; the greatest temperatures in both groups were observed at 72 hours. Serum cortisol concentrations were increased in both groups from hours 72 to 136 and serum interferon-γ concentrations were greater in the IBRV+ from 94 to 112 hours after inoculation. Growth hormone concentration was greater in the IBRV+ group at various time points, but no difference in insulin-like growth factor- I concentration was observed.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that IBVR challenge altered growth hormone concentration at some time points but was not associated with large increases in circulating proinflammatory cytokines.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To quantify acute immunologic and metabolic responses of beef heifers following topical administration of transdermal flunixin meglumine (TDFM) at various times relative to bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) and Mannheimia haemolytica challenges.

ANIMALS

32 beef heifers (mean body weight, 170 kg).

PROCEDURES

Heifers were assigned to 1 of 4 groups. Heifers in the control group did not receive TDFM, whereas 1 dose of TDFM (3.3 mg/kg) was topically applied to heifers of groups A, V, and B at −144, −72, and 0 hours. All heifers were inoculated with 1 × 108 plaque-forming units of BHV1 in each nostril at −72 hours and with 1.18 × 106 CFUs of M haemolytica intratracheally at 0 hours. Vaginal temperature was recorded and blood samples were collected for quantification of select immunologic and metabolic biomarkers at predetermined times from −144 to 360 hours.

RESULTS

Mean vaginal temperature was similar between group A and the control group. Mean vaginal temperatures for groups V and B were generally lower than that for the control group following BHV1 and M haemolytica challenges, respectively. Mean neutrophil oxidative burst capacity and L-selectin expression at 0 hours were significantly decreased for group V relative to the other groups. Other biomarkers did not differ among the groups at any time.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggested that topical administration of TDFM to beef cattle effectively alleviated pyrexia without adverse effects on acute immunologic or metabolic responses when TDFM was administered at the same time as, but not before, respiratory pathogen challenge.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effect of dietary supplemental lipoic acid (LA) on serum concentrations of metabolic hormones and acute-phase proteins of steers challenged with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV).

Animals—32 steers.

Procedures—Steers were randomly assigned to 4 treatments: negative control (NC; no LA, no IBRV challenge), control (CON; no LA, IBRV challenge), 16 mg of LA/kg of body weight (BW)/d plus IBRV challenge (LA16), and 32 mg of LA/kg of BW/d plus IBRV challenge (LA32). Following a 21-day adaptation period, CON, LA16, and LA32 steers received IBRV (2 mL/nostril [day 0]); NC steers received saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. Blood samples, nasal swab specimens, BW, and rectal temperatures were obtained 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, and 21 days after challenge. Serum was analyzed for concentrations of haptoglobin, amyloid-A, leptin, and anti-IBRV antibodies.

Results—Steers fed LA32 began gaining BW by day 7, whereas BW of CON and LA16 steers declined. Serum haptoglobin concentration of LA32 steers was lower than that of CON and LA16 steers on day 7. Serum neutralization titers for 30 of 32 steers were negative for anti-IBRV antibodies before challenge; however, all steers (including NCs) had antibodies on day 21.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that LA supplementation augmented certain aspects of the immune response; LA32 steers had a more rapid recovery from IBRV viral challenge than did others.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To investigate the effects of meloxicam administration before long-distance transport on inflammatory mediators and leukocyte function of cattle at feedlot arrival.

ANIMALS 60 healthy yearling beef steers.

PROCEDURES Single-source steers were assigned to a transported (n = 40) or nontransported (20) group. Then, half of the steers within each group were assigned to receive meloxicam (1 mg/kg, PO) or a lactose placebo (1 bolus/steer, PO). All steers were transported approximately 1,300 km overnight to a feedlot; however, the nontransported group was moved before treatment (meloxicam or placebo) administration and allowed a 17-day acclimation period, whereas the transported group was moved immediately after treatment administration on day −1. Blood samples for measurement of inflammatory mediators and leukocyte function were collected from all steers on days −1, 0, and 3.

RESULTS For steers that received meloxicam, mean plasma meloxicam concentration for the transported group was significantly greater than that for the nontransported group on day 0. For steers that received the placebo, mean haptoglobin-matrix metalloproteinase-9 complex for the transported group was significantly greater than that for the nontransported group on day 0. Mean haptoglobin concentration, neutrophil L-selectin intensity, and polymorphonuclear leukocyte count for the transported group were significantly greater than those for the nontransported group. Mean substance P concentration for nontransported steers that received meloxicam was significantly lower than that for the other 3 treatment groups.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated meloxicam administration to healthy steers immediately before long-distance transport did not significantly mitigate the effects of transport-induced stress on leukocyte function or inflammatory markers.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research