Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 19 items for

  • Author or Editor: Jeff C. Ko x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate and compare the anesthetic, analgesic, and cardiorespiratory effects of tiletamine-zolazepam-detomidine-butorphanol (TZDB), tiletamine-zolazepam-xylazine-butorphanol (TZXB), and ketamine-detomidine-butorphanol (KDB) in pigs and to assess anesthetic recovery duration and quality following administration of tolazoline as a reversal agent.

ANIMALS

11 healthy 2.5-month-old castrated male Landrace mixed-breed pigs.

PROCEDURES

In a randomized, blinded crossover study design, pigs received the following anesthetic combinations, IM: TZDB (tiletamine-zolazepam [3 mg/kg {1.36 mg/lb}], detomidine [0.18 mg/kg {0.08 mg/lb}], and butorphanol [0.12 mg/kg {0.05 mg/lb}]); TZXB (tiletamine-zolazepam [4 mg/kg {1.8 mg/lb}], xylazine [4 mg/kg], and butorphanol [0.2 mg/kg {0.09 mg/lb}]); and KDB (ketamine [8 mg/kg {3.63 mg/lb}], detomidine [0.18 mg/kg], and butorphanol [0.3 mg/kg {0.14 mg/lb}]). A 7-day washout period was provided between treatments. At 45 minutes of anesthesia, pigs received tolazoline (2 mg/kg [0.9 mg/lb], IM; n = 6) treatment or control (5) treatment with saline (0.9% NaCl) solution.

RESULTS

All anesthetic combinations induced anesthesia. Endotracheal intubation was completed within 5 minutes after anesthetic administration in all pigs, except in 2 pigs following administration of KDB. Durations (mean ± SD) of endotracheal intubation and lateral recumbency in pigs that did not receive tolazoline were 55.3 ± 4.8 minutes, 83.8 ± 15.8 minutes, and 28.2 ± 4.5 minutes and 112.4 ± 18.7 minutes, 117.2 ± 16.7 minutes, and 79.7 ± 6.0 minutes, respectively, for the TZDB, TZXB, and KDB anesthetic treatments. Tolazoline significantly shortened the duration of anesthetic recovery for all anesthetic treatments without affecting the recovery quality.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

All 3 anesthetic combinations were suitable for providing anesthesia in pigs. Tolazoline administration shortened the duration of anesthetic recovery without affecting the quality of recovery.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare anesthetic, analgesic, and cardiorespiratory effects in dogs after IM administration of dexmedetomidine (7.5 μg/kg)–butorphanol (0.15 mg/kg)–tiletamine-zolazepam (3.0 mg/kg; DBTZ) or dexmedetomidine (15.0 μg/kg)-tramadol (3.0 mg/kg)-ketamine (3.0 mg/kg; DTrK) combinations.

Animals—6 healthy adult mixed-breed dogs.

Procedures—Each dog received DBTZ and DTrK in a randomized, crossover-design study with a 5-day interval between treatments. Cardiorespiratory variables and duration and quality of sedation-anesthesia (assessed via auditory stimulation and sedation-anesthesia scoring) and analgesia (assessed via algometry and electrical nerve stimulation) were evaluated at predetermined intervals.

Results—DBTZ or DTrK induced general anesthesia sufficient for endotracheal intubation ≤ 7 minutes after injection. Anesthetic quality and time from drug administration to standing recovery (131.5 vs 109.5 minutes after injection of DBTZ and DTrK, respectively) were similar between treatments. Duration of analgesia was significantly longer with DBTZ treatment, compared with DTrK treatment. Analgesic effects were significantly greater with DBTZ treatment than with DTrK treatment at several time points. Transient hypertension (mean arterial blood pressure > 135 mm Hg), bradycardia (heart rate < 60 beats/min), and hypoxemia (oxygen saturation < 90% via pulse oximetry) were detected during both treatments. Tidal volume decreased significantly from baseline with both treatments and was significantly lower after DBTZ administration, compared with DTrK, at several time points.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—DBTZ or DTrK rapidly induced short-term anesthesia and analgesia in healthy dogs. Further research is needed to assess efficacy of these drug combinations for surgical anesthesia. Supplemental 100% oxygen should be provided when DBTZ or DTrK are used.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the cardiorespiratory effects of preemptive atropine administration in dogs sedated with medetomidine.

Design—Randomized crossover trial.

Animals—12 healthy adult dogs.

Procedures—Dogs underwent 6 treatments. Each treatment consisted of administration of atropine (0.04 mg/kg [0.018 mg/lb] of body weight, IM) or saline solution (0.9% NaCl, 1 ml, IM) and administration of medetomidine (10, 20, or 40 µg/kg [4.5, 9.1, or 18.2µg/lb], IM) 10 minutes later. Treatments were administered in random order, with a minimum of 1 week between treatments. Cardiorespiratory effects before and after atropine and medetomidine administration were assessed. Duration of lateral recumbency and quality of sedation and recovery were assessed.

Results—Bradycardia (heart rate < 60 beats/min) was seen in all dogs when saline solution was administered followed by medetomidine, and the dose of medetomidine was not associated with severity or frequency of bradycardia or second-degree heart block. However, a medetomidine dose-dependent increase in mean and diastolic blood pressures was observed, regardless of whether dogs received saline solution or atropine. Preemptive atropine administration effectively prevented bradycardia and seconddegree heart block but induced pulsus alternans and hypertension. The protective effects of atropine against bradycardia lasted 50 minutes. Blood gas values were within reference limits during all treatments and were not significantly different from baseline values. Higher doses of medetomidine resulted in a longer duration of lateral recumbency.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Preemptive administration of atropine in dogs sedated with medetomidine effectively prevents bradycardia for 50 minutes but induces hypertension and pulsus alternans. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:52–58)

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine sedative and cardiorespiratory effects of IM administration of medetomidine alone and in combination with butorphanol or ketamine in dogs.

Design—Randomized, crossover study.

Animals—6 healthy adult dogs.

Procedure—Dogs were given medetomidine alone (30 µg/kg [13.6 µg/lb] of body weight, IM), a combination of medetomidine (30 µg/kg, IM) and butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg [0.09 mg/lb], IM), or a combination of medetomidine (30 µg/kg, IM) and ketamine (3 mg/kg [1.36 mg/lb], IM). Treatments were administered in random order with a minimum of 1 week between treatments. Glycopyrrolate was given at the same time. Atipamezole (150 µg/kg [68 µg/lb], IM) was given 40 minutes after administration of medetomidine.

Results—All but 1 dog (given medetomidine alone) assumed lateral recumbency within 6 minutes after drug administration. Endotracheal intubation was significantly more difficult when dogs were given medetomidine alone than when given medetomidine and butorphanol. At all evaluation times, percentages of dogs with positive responses to tail clamping or to needle pricks in the cervical region, shoulder region, abdominal region, or hindquarters were not significantly different among drug treatments. The PaCO2 was significantly higher and the arterial pH and PaO2 were significantly lower when dogs were given medetomidine and butorphanol or medetomidine and ketamine than when they were given medetomidine alone. Recovery quality following atipamezole administration was unsatisfactory in 1 dog when given medetomidine and ketamine.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that a combination of medetomidine with butorphanol or ketamine resulted in more reliable and uniform sedation in dogs than did medetomidine alone. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:1578–1583)

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To assess the isoflurane-sparing effect of a transdermal formulation of fentanyl solution (TFS) and subsequent naloxone administration in dogs.

DESIGN Experiment.

ANIMALS 6 healthy mixed-breed dogs.

PROCEDURES Minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane was determined in each dog with a tail clamp method (baseline). Two weeks later, dogs were treated with TFS (2.7 mg/kg [1.23 mg/lb]), and the MAC of isoflurane was determined 4 and 24 hours later. After the 4-hour MAC assessment, saline (0.9% NaCl) solution was immediately administered IV and MAC was reassessed. After the 24-hour MAC assessment, naloxone hydrochloride (0.02 mg/kg [0.01 mg/lb], IV) was immediately administered and MAC was reassessed. Heart rate, respiratory rate, arterial blood pressure, end-tidal partial pressure of CO2, and oxygen saturation as measured by pulse oximetry were recorded for each MAC assessment.

RESULTS Mean ± SD MAC of isoflurane at 4 and 24 hours after TFS application was 45.4 ± 4.0% and 45.5 ± 4.5% lower than at baseline, respectively. Following naloxone administration, only a minimal reduction in MAC was identified (mean percentage decrease from baseline of 13.1 ± 2.2%, compared with 43.8 ± 5.6% for saline solution). Mean heart rate was significantly higher after naloxone administration (113.2 ± 22.2 beats/min) than after saline solution administration (76.7 ± 20.0 beats/min). No significant differences in other variables were identified among treatments.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The isoflurane-sparing effects of TFS in healthy dogs were consistent and sustained between 4 and 24 hours after application, and these effects should be taken into consideration when anesthetizing or reanesthetizing TFS-treated dogs.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To investigate hemodynamic effects of acepromazine and dexmedetomidine premedication in dogs undergoing general anesthesia induced with propofol and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen and assess the influence of these drugs on oxygen-carrying capacity and PCV.

Design—Prospective, randomized crossover study.

Animals—6 healthy adult dogs.

Procedures—Dogs received acepromazine (0.05 mg/kg [0.023 mg/lb]) or dexmedetomidine (15.0 μg/kg [6.82 μg/lb]) IM. Fifteen minutes later, anesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained at end-tidal isoflurane concentration of 1.28% (1 minimum alveolar concentration) for 30 minutes. Hemodynamic variables were recorded at predetermined times. The experiment was repeated 48 hours later with the alternate premedication. Results were analyzed by repeated-measures ANOVA with a mixed-models procedure.

Results—Bradycardia, hypertension, and significant cardiac output (CO) reduction developed after dexmedetomidine premedication but improved during isoflurane anesthesia. Hypotension developed after acepromazine administration and persisted throughout the isoflurane maintenance period, but CO was maintained throughout the anesthetic period when dogs received this treatment. Oxygen delivery and consumption were not different between treatments at most time points, whereas arterial oxygen content was lower with acepromazine premedication owing to lower PCV during isoflurane anesthesia.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Acepromazine exacerbated hypotension, but CO did not change in dogs anesthetized with propofol and isoflurane. Dexmedetomidine reduced CO but prevented propofol-isoflurane–induced hypotension. In general, oxygen-carrying capacity and PCV were higher in dexmedetomidine-treated than in acepromazine-treated dogs anesthetized with propofol and isoflurane.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare the effect of oral administration of tramadol alone and with IV administration of butorphanol or hydromorphone on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of sevoflurane in cats.

Design—Crossover study.

Animals—8 healthy 3-year-old cats.

Procedures—Cats were anesthetized with sevoflurane in 100% oxygen. A standard tail clamp method was used to determine the MAC of sevoflurane following administration of tramadol (8.6 to 11.6 mg/kg [3.6 to 5.3 mg/lb], PO, 5 minutes before induction of anesthesia), butorphanol (0.4 mg/kg [0.18 mg/lb], IV, 30 minutes after induction), hydromorphone (0.1 mg/kg [0.04 mg/lb], IV, 30 minutes after induction), saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (0.05 mL/kg [0.023 mL/lb], IV, 30 minutes after induction), or tramadol with butorphanol or with hydromorphone (same doses and routes of administration). Naloxone (0.02 mg/kg [0.009 mg/lb], IV) was used to reverse the effects of treatments, and MACs were redetermined.

Results—Mean ± SEM MACs for sevoflurane after administration of tramadol (1.48 ± 0.20%), butorphanol (1.20 ± 0.16%), hydromorphone (1.76 ± 0.15%), tramadol and butorphanol (1.48 ± 0.20%), and tramadol and hydromorphone (1.85 ± 0.20%) were significantly less than those after administration of saline solution (2.45 ± 0.22%). Naloxone reversed the reductions in MACs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of tramadol, butorphanol, or hydromorphone reduced the MAC of sevoflurane in cats, compared with that in cats treated with saline solution. The reductions detected were likely mediated by effects of the drugs on opioid receptors. An additional reduction in MAC was not detected when tramadol was administered with butorphanol or hydromorphone.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare the analgesic effects of intra-articularly administered saline (0.9% NaCl) solution, morphine, dexmedetomidine, and a morphine-dexmedetomidine combination in dogs undergoing stifle joint surgery for cranial cruciate ligament rupture.

Design—Randomized, controlled, clinical trial.

Animals—44 dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture that underwent tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA) or tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO).

Procedures—Dogs received intra-articular injections of saline solution (0.2 mL/kg [0.09 mL/lb]), morphine (0.1 mg/kg [0.045 mg/lb]), dexmedetomidine (2.5 μg/kg [1.14 μg/lb]), or a combination of morphine (0.1 mg/kg) and dexmedetomidine (2.5 μg/kg). Intra-articular injections of the stifle joint were performed after completion of the corrective osteotomy procedure, just prior to skin closure. Signs of pain were assessed every 2 hours thereafter on the basis of mean behavioral and objective pain scores. Dogs with pain scores exceeding predetermined thresholds were given hydromorphone (0.05 mg/kg [0.023 mg/lb], SC) as rescue analgesia.

Results—Time to rescue analgesia did not significantly differ between dogs that underwent TTA versus TPLO. No significant difference in time to rescue analgesia was found among dogs receiving intra-articular injections of dexmedetomidine (median, 6 hours; range, 2 to 10 hours), morphine (median, 7 hours; range, 4 to 10 hours), or saline solution (median, 5 hours; range, 4 to 10 hours). However, time to rescue analgesia for dogs receiving intra-articular injection of the morphine-dexmedetomidine combination (median, 10 hours; range, 6 to 14 hours) was significantly longer than the time to rescue analgesia for other treatment groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Intra-articular administration of the morphine-dexmedetomidine combination provided longer-lasting postoperative analgesia, compared with either morphine or dexmedetomidine alone, in dogs undergoing TTA or TPLO. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2014;244:1291–1297)

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate hemodynamic effects in dogs after IM administration of dexmedetomidine (7.5 μg/kg, butorphanol (0.15 mg/kg), and tiletamine-zolazepam (3 mg/kg [DBTZ]) or dexmedetomidine (15 μg/kg), butorphanol (0.3 mg/kg), and ketamine (3 mg/kg [DBK]).

Animals—5 healthy adult mixed-breed dogs.

Procedures—Each dog received DBTZ and DBK in a randomized crossover study with a 48-hour interval between treatments. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with sevoflurane in 100% oxygen while instrumentation with Swan-Ganz and arterial catheters was performed. Following instrumentation, hemodynamic measurements were recorded at 3.54% (1.5 times the minimum alveolar concentration) sevoflurane; then sevoflurane administration was discontinued, and dogs were allowed to recover. Six hours after cessation of sevoflurane administration, baseline hemodynamic measurements were recorded, each dog was given an IM injection of DBTZ or DBK, and hemodynamic measurements were obtained at predetermined intervals for 70 minutes.

Results—DBTZ and DBK induced hypoventilation (Paco 2, approx 60 to 70 mm Hg), respiratory acidosis (pH, approx 7.2), hypertension (mean arterial blood pressure, approx 115 to 174 mm Hg), increases in systemic vascular resistance, and reflex bradycardia. Cardiac output, oxygen delivery, and oxygen consumption following DBTZ or DBK administration were similar to those following sevoflurane administration to achieve a surgical plane of anesthesia. Blood l-lactate concentrations remained within the reference range at all times for all protocols.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In healthy dogs, both DBTZ and DBK maintained oxygen delivery and oxygen consumption to tissues and blood lactate concentrations within the reference range. However, ventilation should be carefully monitored and assisted when necessary to prevent hypoventilation.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association