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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine demographic characteristics of dogs from the upper Midwest infected with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and identify clinical and clinicopathologic abnormalities and response to treatment.

Design—Retrospective case series and owner telephone survey.

Animals—34 dogs with granulocytic anaplasmosis.

Procedures—Records were reviewed for information on signalment, history, physical examination findings, clinicopathologic and serologic findings, and treatment. Owners were contacted by telephone within 4 months after dogs were discharged.

Results—Median age was 8 years. Distribution of month of diagnosis was bimodal, with 15 dogs examined during May or June and 11 others examined during October or November. Camping and hiking were the most frequently reported tick exposure activities. Lethargy (25/34) and anorexia (21/34) were the most common initial complaints, fever was the most common clinical sign (27/32), and thrombocytopenia was the most common clinicopathologic abnormality (21/22). Fifteen of 20 dogs were seropositive for antibodies against A phagocytophilum. Doxycycline was prescribed for 31 dogs, and clinical signs and fever resolved within 3 to 5 days. Median time for platelet count to return to reference limits was 7 days. No owners reported clinical sequelae when contacted after dogs were discharged.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that granulocytic anaplasmosis should be suspected in dogs in endemic areas examined because of fever, lethargy, or thrombocytopenia, especially in dogs examined during the late spring or early fall. Treatment with doxycycline was successful in resolving clinical signs and thrombocytopenia.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Authors , , and
Animals in Public Contact subcommittee of the National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians Animals in Public Contact subcommittee of the National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians


Objective—To assess the number of zoonotic disease outbreaks associated with animal exhibits and identify published recommendations for preventing zoonotic disease transmission from animals to people in exhibit settings.

Design—Literature review and survey of state public health veterinarians and state epidemiologists.

Procedure—MEDLINE and agriculture databases were searched from 1966 through 2000. Retrieved references and additional resources provided by the authors were reviewed. A survey was sent to state public health veterinarians and state epidemiologists to determine whether their states had written recommendations or guidelines for controlling zoonotic diseases in animal exhibition venues, whether their states maintained a listing of animal exhibitors in the state, and whether they had any information on recent outbreaks involving animals in exhibitions.

Results—11 published outbreaks were identified. These outbreaks occurred in a variety of settings including petting zoos, farms, and a zoological park. An additional episode involving exposure to a potentially rabid bear required extensive public health resources. A survey of state public health veterinarians identified 16 additional unpublished outbreaks or incidents. Most states did not have written recommendations or guidelines for controlling zoonotic diseases or any means to disseminate educational materials to animal exhibitors.

Conclusions—Recent outbreaks of zoonotic diseases associated with contact with animals in exhibition venues highlight concerns for disease transmission to public visitors. Only a handful of states have written guidelines for preventing zoonotic disease transmission in animal exhibition venues, and published recommendations currently available focus on preventing enteric diseases and largely do not address other zoonotic diseases or prevention of bite wounds. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:1105–1109)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To evaluate the magnitude and consequences of work-related injuries and associated factors among veterinary technicians certified in Minnesota.

Design—Cross-sectional survey.

Sample—1,427 certified veterinary technicians (CVTs).

Procedures—Surveys were used to collect data on demographics, personal characteristics, injury occurrences in the 12 months prior to survey completion, and injury consequences. Annual injury rates were estimated on the basis of demographic and work-related characteristics. Risk of injury associated with various factors was estimated by calculation of incidence rate ratios, controlling for multiple factors.

Results—465 of 873 eligible CVTs reported 1,827 injury events (total and bite injury rates, 237 and 78 injuries/100 persons/y). Primary injury sources were cats and dogs, and most injuries occurred during animal restraint or treatment. Self-reported most severe injuries involved bites; cuts, lacerations, or scratches; bruises or contusions; and abrasions. Injury consequences included treatment and restricted work activity. Risk of work-related injury was lower for CVTs who worked < 40 h/wk than for those who worked ≥ 40 h/wk. The risk was higher for CVTs working in small animal or mixed mostly small animal facilities and lower for those working in mixed large and small animal facilities, commercial or industry operations, and government or regulatory facilities, compared with CVTs in colleges or universities. Handling 4 to > 6 (vs < 4) animal species during the 12 months prior to the survey and belief that injuries are not preventable were also associated with higher risk of injury.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Several factors associated with the risk of work-related injury among CVTs were identified. Beyond these risk factors, investigation of additional exposures is integral to relevant intervention strategies.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To identify risk and protective factors for work-related bite injuries among veterinary technicians certified in Minnesota.

Design—Nested case-control study.

Sample—868 certified veterinary technicians (CVTs).

Procedures—A questionnaire was mailed to CVTs who previously participated in a survey regarding work-related injuries and did (cases; 301 surveys sent) or did not (controls; 567) report qualifying work-related animal bite injuries in the preceding 12 months. Descriptive statistics were summarized. Demographic and work-related variables for the month preceding the bite injury (for cases) or a randomly selected month (controls) were assessed with univariate analysis (489 CVTs) and multivariate analysis of a subset of 337 CVTs who worked in small or mixed mostly small animal facilities.

Results—Responses were received from 176 case and 313 control CVTs. For the subset of 337 CVTs, risk of bite injury was higher for those < 25 years of age (OR, 3.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.84 to 7.94) than for those ≥ 35 years of age, for those who had worked < 5 years (OR, 3.24; 95% CI, 1.63 to 6.45) versus ≥ 10 years in any veterinary facility, and for those who handled ≥ 5 species/d (OR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.06 to 3.74) versus < 3 species/d. Risk was lower for CVTs who handled < 10 versus ≥ 20 animals/d (OR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.08 to 0.71).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Several work-related factors were associated with the risk of work-related bite injury to CVTs. These findings may serve as a basis for development of intervention efforts and future research regarding work-related injuries among veterinary staff.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To characterize animal-related injuries in veterinary medical center staff at a veterinary medical center.


706 hospital staff injuries.


Deidentified injury reports were submitted to Human Resources from 2008 through 2022. Injury data collected included the injury description, date of injury, occupation, and worker’s compensation claim information. Data were summarized by year, cause of injury, total cost associated with injury, and occupation.


There was an increase in injuries reported in recent years when compared to past years, with the plurality of injuries being bite injuries, specifically occurring on the hand, finger, and wrist area. Bite injuries had a higher average total worker’s compensation cost paid to staff than striking injuries. There were more injuries reported by staff who had less experience working with animals. More injuries occurred during the summer months (June through September). There was not an unusual trend in the reporting of injuries due to COVID-19. Other injuries (eg, needlesticks and falls) were reported from only 2019 to 2022, but constituted a substantial burden for staff.


These findings can help stakeholders at teaching hospitals and veterinary clinics to take steps toward creating a safer workplace environment for employees. It is important to identify work hazards and provide proper training and prevention methods to reduce the risk of injuries, especially among less experienced employees. Proper prevention methods will help reduce worker’s compensation costs for the teaching hospital and reduce the number of workdays missed by staff.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association