Objective—To compare 4 techniques for determination
of total protein concentrations in peritoneal and
pleural effusions from dogs.
Sample Population—23 peritoneal and 12 pleural
fluid samples from 35 dogs with various abnormalities.
Procedure—Samples were collected into tubes containing
EDTA, centrifuged, and stored at −20 C until
total protein concentrations were assessed. Protein
concentration in each sample was determined by use
of urine test strips, refractometry, and Bradford and
biuret techniques. Accuracy of each method was
determined, using dilutions of human control sera.
Results—There was good correlation among results
of all quantitative procedures. Results of the biuret
technique were more accurate than results of the
Bradford assay. Refractometry underestimated protein
concentration in samples with < 20 g of protein/L. Results of urine test strips correctly classified
effusion samples into 2 groups on the basis of total
protein concentrations less than or greater than 20 g/L.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of
any of these 4 techniques can be used to rapidly and
efficiently differentiate peritoneal and pleural fluid
from dogs into transudates and exudates on the basis
of total protein concentration less than or greater than
20 g/L, respectively. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:294-296)
Objective—To assess the effects of moderate exercise
on plasma creatine kinase (CK) pharmacokinetics
and to estimate exercise-induced muscle damage in
Animals—6 untrained adult Beagles.
Procedure—The study was divided into 3 phases. In
phase 1, dogs ran for 1 hour at a speed of 9 km/h, and
samples were used to determine the area under the
plasma CK activity versus time curve (AUC) induced
by exercise. In phases 2 and 3, pharmacokinetics of
CK were calculated in dogs during exercise and at
rest, respectively. Values for AUC and plasma clearance
(Cl) were used to estimate muscle damage.
Results—At rest, values for Cl, steady-state volume
of distribution (Vdss), and mean retention time (MRT)
were 0.32 ± 0.02 ml/kg of body weight/min, 57 ± 17.3
ml/kg, and 3.0 ± 0.57 h, respectively. During exercise,
Cl decreased significantly (0.26 ± 0.03 ml/kg/min),
MRT increased significantly, (4.4 ± 0.97 h), and Vdss
remained unchanged. Peak of plasma CK activity (151
± 58.8 U/L) was observed 3 hours after completion of
exercise. Estimated equivalent amount of muscle corresponding
to the quantity of CK released was 41 ±
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—These results
revealed that exercise had a minor effect on CK disposition
and that the equivalent amount of muscle
damaged by moderate exercise was negligible. This
study illustrates the relevance for use of the minimally
invasive and quantitative pharmacokinetic approach
when estimating muscle damage. (Am J Vet Res
Objective—To establish reference intervals of plasma biochemical values in healthy adult domestic shorthair (DSH) cats by use of controlled conditions.
Animals—95 healthy client-owned cats.
Procedures—Food was withheld from the cats overnight. All blood samples were obtained on the same day, at the same location, and by the same investigator. Blood samples were collected from a cephalic vein into lithium heparin tubes. After centrifugation of blood samples, plasma supernatants were harvested and stored at −20°C until assayed for total proteins, albumin, creatinine, urea, glucose, calcium, phosphates, sodium, chloride, potassium, and CO2 concentrations and alkaline phosphatase and alanine aminotransferase activities.
Results—Reference intervals in healthy adult DSH cats were 65 to 85 g/L for total proteins, 27 to 39 g/L for albumin, 89 to 207 μmol/L for creatinine, 6.6 to 11.3 mmol/L for urea, 4.1 to 8.2 mmol/L for glucose, 2.4 to 2.9 mmol/L for calcium, 1.1 to 2.1 mmol/L for phosphates, 153 to 161 mmol/L for sodium, 120 to 127 mmol/L for chloride, 3.3 to 4.2 mmol/L for potassium, 15 to 21 mmol/L for CO2, 32 to 147 U/L for alkaline phosphatase, and 34 to 123 U/L for alanine aminotransferase.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—This study provided reference intervals for plasma analytes in adult DSH cats. The influence of potential confounding factors was minimized through use of controlled preanalytic and analytic conditions. However, these results cannot be extrapolated to other feline breeds or used to interpret results from other biochemical analyzers.
Objective—To evaluate the effects of an IV, low-dose ketamine-diazepam combination used for short-duration chemical restraint on the results of clinicopathologic testing in cats and to assess its practicality and tolerance.
Design—Prospective case series.
Animals—42 client-owned cats of various breeds, ages, and health status.
Procedures—Blood samples were obtained just prior to and just after IV injection of ketamine chlorhydrate (10 mg) and diazepam (0.5 mg). A CBC, plasma biochemistry panel, and coagulation profile were performed on each sample (ie, before and after chemical restraint). Practicality of the procedure was assessed, and cats were monitored for immediate and delayed effects.
Results—Significant changes were observed for most of the analytes tested. However, the magnitude of the observed changes was notably low and likely not of clinical relevance. The chemical-restraint procedure appeared effective, safe, and well tolerated.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The IV, low-dose ketamine-diazepam combination used for short-duration chemical restraint in the present study may be suitable to assist physical restraint for blood sampling for assessment of hematologic, serum biochemical, and coagulation parameters in cats.
OBJECTIVE To investigate effects of storage conditions on the canine urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (UPC) and on SDS–agarose gel electrophoresis (AGE) of urinary proteins.
SAMPLE Urine specimens from 20 proteinuric (UPC > 0.5) and 20 nonproteinuric (UPC ≤ 0.2) dogs.
PROCEDURES UPC and SDS-AGE were performed on urine specimens stored at room temperature (20°C) and 4°C for up to 5 days and at −20° and −80°C for up to 360 days; some specimens were subjected to 3 freeze-thaw cycles. Results were compared with those obtained for fresh urine specimens.
RESULTS UPC was not affected by storage at room temperature or by freezing. A decrease in UPC was observed for specimens from nonproteinuric dogs after 5 days at 4°C (10%) and from both groups after 90 days at −20° and −80°C (≤ 20% and ≤ 15%, respectively). The SDS-AGE profiles revealed no visual changes regardless of duration of storage for specimens stored at room temperature, 4°C, and −80°C, except for 1 profile after 360 days at −80°C. Repeated freeze-thaw cycles did not affect SDS-AGE profiles. Appearance or strengthening of high-molecular-weight bands that could alter interpretation was evident in SDS-AGE profiles after storage at −20°C for ≥ 15 days (31/40 dogs).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Storage of urine at −20° or −80°C for up to 1 year influenced the UPC without affecting clinical interpretation. Storage of urine specimens at −20°C impaired visual analysis of SDS-AGE. When SDS-AGE cannot be performed on fresh or recently refrigerated urine specimens, storage at −80°C is recommended.