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On initial evaluation for onset of seizure disorders at nonreferral veterinary practices, 50 previously healthy dogs were enrolled in a study to determine the probability of identifying a specific cause for the seizures. Treatment was not administered prior to entry of dogs in the study. On the basis of antemortem and postmortem test results, 22 dogs (44%) were classified as having primary epileptic seizures (pes; idiopathic or without identifiable cause), 23 (46%) had secondary epileptic seizures (ses; identifiable intracranial cause), and 5 (10%) had reactive epileptic seizures (res; metabolic or transient noxious cause). Forty-one dogs (82%) had 2 or more seizures before evaluation, with 37 (90%) of these dogs classified as having epilepsy on the basis of an underlying chronic brain disorder. For these 41 dogs, 17 (41%) had pes, 20 (49%) had ses, and 4 (10%) had res. Among the 9 dogs (18%) with nonrecurring seizures, 5 had pes, 3 had ses, and 1 had res. Generalized seizures were the most common first-observed seizure type associated with all etiologic classifications in all dogs with recurring and nonrecurring seizures.

Diagnosis of ses was statistically more probable when the dog was less than 1 or more than 7 years old at the first seizure, when the first seizure was a partial seizure, or when the first seizure occurred between midnight and 8 am. A diagnosis of res was statistically more probable only when the interval between the first and second seizure was brief (≤ 4 weeks). A diagnosis of pes was statistically more probable when the dog was between 1 and 5 years of age at the first seizure, when the dog was a large breed (> 15 kg), when the seizure occurred between 8 am and midnight, or when the interval between the first and second seizure was long (> 4 weeks).

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To investigate any potential structural differences in hepatogastric ligaments between clinically normal dogs and dogs with gastric dilatation-volvulus (gdv).


Case-control study.


Hepatogastric ligaments were examined in 13 large-breed control dogs and in 13 large-breed dogs referred for surgical treatment of gdv.


Measurements and biopsies of hepatogastric ligaments were performed at the time of surgery, circumcostal gastropexy, for correction of gdv. Serial sections from each ligament were stained with H&E, Masson's trichrome, and elastin stains to assess morphology, including smooth muscle, collagen, and elastic fiber contents.


There were no differences observed by light microscopy in incidence or degree of histopathologic alterations between the 2 groups of dogs. The lengths of hepatogastric ligaments in gdv-affected dogs, however, were significantly longer than those of control dogs (gdv-affected dogs, 7.0 [5.0 to 9.5] cm median [range]; control dogs, 5.0 [3.0 to 7.5] cm median [range]; P = 0.01).


Causality can not be inferred from this study. It is not known whether the ligaments were lengthened as a result of gdv or whether the lengthened ligaments predisposed dogs to gdv.

Clinical Relevance

This finding may reflect increased laxity of the supporting hepatogastric ligament in the right quadrant of the abdomen. An elongated ligament may permit increased stomach mobility and predispose dogs to partial or complete gastric volvulus.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Urethral pressures profiles (upp) obtained by use of microtransducer catheters were determined in 8 anestrous sexually intact female Beagles during general anesthesia. A upp study consisted of 3 consecutive recordings, and 4 upp studies were repeated at an interval of 5 days in each dog. Maximal urethral pressure (cm of H2O), bladder pressure (cm of H2O), and anatomic urethral length (cm) were recorded. Maximal urethral closure pressure (cm of H2O) was calculated.

Mean ± sd (for all measurements) maximal urethral closure pressure was 12.8 ± 5.6 cm of H2O (range, 2.4 to 25.2 cm of H2O). Maximal urethral closure pressure was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased during the first recording period (11.4 ± 5.8 cm of H2O), compared with the second (13.0 ± 5.2 cm of H2O) or third (14.1 ± 5.7 cm of H2O) recording periods within a upp study (3 consecutive recordings). Mean maximal difference in urethral closure pressure during a single upp study was 4.8 ± 2.4 cm of H2O. Significant difference in maximal urethral closure pressure was not observed between studies.

Mean (for all measurements) anatomic urethral length was 6.2 ± 0.9 cm (4.1 to 7.8 cm). Anatomic urethral length was significantly (P < 0.05) less during the first recording period (6.1 ± 0.9 cm), compared with values for the second and third periods (6.3 ± 0.9cm, 6.4 ± 0.9 cm respectively). Anatomic urethral length for time 3 was significantly (P < 0.05) less than the value for time 1 (5.8 ± 0.7 cm vs 6.6 ± 0.8 cm).

We conclude that the microtransducer catheter technique for measurement of upp was reproducible during a single study and between successive studies.

This method is useful in documenting maximal urethral pressure, maximal urethral closure pressure, and anatomic urethral length in clinically normal sexually intact female dogs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research