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  • Author or Editor: Jean L. Blaisdell x
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Summary

Tamm-Horsfall protein (thp) was isolated and purified, using pooled urine collections from clinically normal cats. The effects of feline thp and purified feline serum albumin on urine chemical and struvite crystal variables were compared, using an in vitro crystal growth system and 24-hour samples of pooled urine obtained from 4 cats. Urine samples were placed in wells of cell culture plates, increasing concentrations of ammonium hydroxide were added to adjacent wells to stimulate struvite crystal growth, and the plates were incubated at 37 C. The effect of albumin and thp on crystal growth in sample wells was compared with that in control wells, without protein addition, in the same plate. Crystal growth was assessed by determination of number of crystals and supersaturation index, a scale of crystal habit at different degrees of supersaturation, by use of direct visualization with an inverted microscope. Albumin addition did not have significant effect on either crystal number or supersaturation, compared with controls. Addition of thp significantly (P < 0.05) increased crystal number and supersaturation index. It was concluded that thp significantly (P < 0.05) promoted growth of struvite crystals in feline urine, and thus, may have a role in feline struvite uroliths and struvite urethral plug formation.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To investigate the effect of choreito consumption (500 mg/kg of body weight/d) on struvite crystal formation and signs of lower urinary tract disease (LUTD) in cats consuming a commercial canned diet with 0.5% added inorganic magnesium.

Sample Population

6 male and 6 female adult cats, all considered to be clinically normal on the basis of physical examination findings; results of CBC, serum biochemical analyses, urinalyses, and urine cultures; and freedom from urolithiasis on the basis of urethrocystoscopic (females) or urethrocystographic (males) findings.

Procedure

Diets were fed for 12 weeks, or until appearance of signs of LUTD, including dysuria, hematuria, urine pH > 7.0, and severe struvite crystalluria. Presence of at least 2 of these signs was required for removal from study. Urine specimens were examined for electrolytes, struvite crystal content, and hematuria.

Results

Results for urine variables were compared between groups at 4 weeks, because of reduction in cat numbers attributable to removal from study. Struvite crystal content of 24-hour urine specimens was significantly lower for cats fed the choreito-containing diet. Moreover, frequency and severity of hematuria were significantly decreased in cats fed the choreito-containing diet. Correlation between hematuria and struvite crystal content was not observed in either group. Additionally, all 6 cats fed the diet without choreito had been removed from study by day 58 because of signs of LUTD. Of the 6 cats fed the choreito-containing diet, 2 completed the 12-week study.

Clinical Relevance

Choreito may be beneficial for relief of some signs of struvite-associated LUTD disease in cats. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:146–149)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine the effects of the takushya portion of choreito, a traditional Chinese treatment for urolithiasis, on urine and struvite crystal variables in cats fed diets containing takushya.

Sample Population

6 male and 6 female adult cats, all considered to be clinically normal on the basis of physical examination findings, results of CBC, serum biochemical analyses, urinalyses, and urine cultures; and freedom from urolithiasis on the basis of urethrocystoscopic (females) or urethrocystographic (males) findings.

Procedure

Cats were fed a commercial canned diet supplemented with 0.1-mg of takushya/kg of body weight, or with 0.5 mg of choreito/kg. Diets were fed, using a Latin-square design, to 3 groups of 4 cats (2 male, 2 female) each for 2 weeks, followed by blood and 24-hour urine sample collections.

Results

Consumption of takushya, which comprises 20% by weight of choreito, was not associated with adverse effects in cats at the amounts provided during the period of study. Moreover, takushya was responsible for most of the effect of choreito consumption on reduction of urine pH, and approximately half its ability to reduce struvite crystal formation in cat urine.

Clinical Relevance

Alternative treatments for struvite urolithiasis in cats may be feasible. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:150–152)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The effect of a dietary supplement, choreito, on in vitro struvite crystal growth in feline urine was evaluated. Adult specific-pathogen-free cats (4 females, 4 males) considered to be clinically normal on the basis of physical examination findings and normal results of cbc, serum biochemical analyses, and urinalyses obtained before the beginning of the study were used. Before 24-hour urine sample collections were made, cats were fed a commercial canned diet with 0 or 500 mg of choreito supplement/kg of body weight for at least 2 weeks in a cross-over design with 4 cats/treatment. Filtered urine samples were analyzed for urine pH, specific gravity, osmolality, and urine electrolytes. The struvite activity product was calculated, using a statistical software program that calculates urine saturation. Urine samples were placed in wells of cell culture plates, increasing concentrations of ammonium hydroxide were added to adjacent wells to stimulate struvite crystal growth, and the plates were incubated at 37 C. Crystal growth was assessed by determination of number of crystals and supersaturation index by direct visualization, using an inverted microscope. Supplementation of the diet with choreito (at this concentration) did not change urine pH, specific gravity, osmolality, urine electrolyte composition, or calculated struvite activity product. However, supplementation significantly (P < 0.05) reduced crystal number and supersaturation index. These results indicate that direct observation of struvite crystal formation in whole urine may more accurately predict the effects of treatments to prevent or treat struvite urolithiasis than do calculations based on electrolyte concentration that do not account for the effect of urine macromolecules. It also may mean that choreito consumption affects the concentration of inhibitors or promoters in urine. It was concluded that choreito significantly (P < 0.05) reduced growth of struvite crystals in feline urine, and thus may have a role in prevention of feline struvite urolithiasis. In vivo studies will be necessary to test this hypothesis.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To identify the underlying cause of clinical signs in cats with non obstructive diseases of the bladder and urethra.

Design

Prospective case series.

Sample Population

109 cats examined by the urology service of The Ohio State University's veterinary teaching hospital because of stranguria, hematuria, pollakiuria, or urination in inappropriate locations.

Procedure

History was obtained and a CBC, serum biochemical analyses, serologic tests for FeLV and feline immunodeficiency virus, urinalysis, bacterial culture of urine, and contrast radiography or urethrocystoscopy (females only) were performed.

Results

16 cats had cystic calculi: 8 had struvite uroliths, 7 had calcium oxalate uroliths, and 1 had a urolith of unknown composition in conjunction with an anatomic defect. Anatomic defects, including diverticulae, urethral strictures, and a malpositioned urethra, were identified in 12 cats. A urinary tract infection was identified in 1 cat, and neoplasia was diagnosed in 2. One of the cats with neoplasia also had a struvite urolith. The remaining 80 cats did not have an anatomic defect, urolith, or tumor. Ten of these cats also did not have radiographic or cystoscopic abnormalities and were presumed to have a behavioral disorder. The remaining 70 cats had radiographic or cystoscopic abnormalities, and idiopathic cystitis was diagnosed. In 14 of the cats with idiopathic cystitis, results of a urinalysis were normal. Cats with idiopathic cystitis were significantly more likely to eat dry food exclusively (59%) than were cats in the general population (19%).

Clinical Implications

Results suggest that idiopathic cystitis occurs commonly in cats with stranguria, hematuria, pollakiurfa, or inappropriate elimination and is associated with consumption of dry foods. Contrast radiography or cystoscopy is necessary for differentiating idiopathic cystitis from behavioral disorders in some cats. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;210:46–50)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association