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  • Author or Editor: Javier López-Sanromán x
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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the local analgesic effect of ketamine in a palmar digital nerve block at the base of the proximal sesamoid (abaxial sesamoid block) in horses.

Animals—36 mature healthy Andalusian horses.

Procedure—Horses were randomly assigned to 4 groups of 9 horses each and received an abaxial sesamoid block in a randomly chosen forelimb with 1 of the following: saline (0.9% NaCl) solution, 1% ketamine solution, 2% ketamine solution, or 3% ketamine solution. To determine analgesia, the radiant heat lamp-hoof withdrawal model was used as a noxious thermal stimulus. Before each nerve block, baseline hoof withdrawal reflex latency (HWRL, time between lamp illumination and withdrawal of the hoof) was determined; after the nerve block, local analgesic effects were determined by measuring HWRL at 2 and 5 minutes after injection and then every 5 minutes for a total period of 1 hour.

Results—Significant differences in HWRL were found between baseline values and values at 2 to 15 minutes following a nerve block with ketamine. Significant differences were found between HWRL values at every time point from 2 to 10 minutes following a nerve block with saline solution, compared with 1 or 2% ketamine solution. Similarly, significant differences were found between HWRL values at every time point from 2 to 15 minutes following a nerve block with saline solution, compared with 3% ketamine solution.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Abaxial sesamoid block with ketamine ensures adequate analgesia in horses with an onset of action of 2 minutes and a maximal duration of action of 15 minutes. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:475–478)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the duration of effects on movement patterns of horses after sedation with equipotent doses of xylazine hydrochloride, detomidine hydrochloride, or romifidine hydrochloride and determine whether accelerometry can be used to quantify differences among drug treatments.

Animals—6 healthy horses.

Procedures—Each horse was injected IV with saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (10 mL), xylazine diluted in saline solution (0.5 mg/kg), detomidine diluted in saline solution (0.01 mg/kg), or romifidine diluted in saline solution (0.04 mg/kg) in random order. A triaxial accelerometric device was used for gait assessment 15 minutes before and 5, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, and 120 minutes after each treatment. Eight variables were calculated, including speed, stride frequency, stride length, regularity, dorsoventral power, propulsive power, mediolateral power, and total power; the force of acceleration and 3 components of power were then calculated.

Results—Significant differences were evident in stride frequency and regularity between treatments with saline solution and each α2-adrenoceptor agonist drug; in speed, dorsoventral power, propulsive power, total power, and force values between treatments with saline solution and detomidine or romifidine; and in mediolateral power between treatments with saline solution and detomidine. Stride length did not differ among treatments.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Accelerometric evaluation of horses administered α2-adrenoceptor agonist drugs revealed more prolonged sedative effects of romifidine, compared with effects of xylazine or detomidine. Accelerometry could be useful in assessing the effects of other sedatives and analgesics. Accelerometric data may be helpful in drug selection for situations in which a horse's balance and coordination are important.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the clinical effects and pharmacokinetics of vancomycin in plasma and synovial fluid after intraosseous regional limb perfusion (IORLP) in horses and to compare results with those obtained after IV regional limb perfusion (IVRLP).

Animals—6 horses.

Procedures—1 forelimb of each horse received vancomycin hydrochloride (300 mg in 60 mL of saline [0.9% NaCl] solution) via IORLP; the contralateral limb received 60 mL of saline solution (control). Solutions were injected into the medullary cavity of the distal portion of the third metacarpal bone. Synovial fluid from the metacarpophalangeal (MTCP) and distal interphalangeal (DIP) joints and blood were collected prior to perfusion and 15, 30, 45, 65, and 90 minutes after beginning IORLP, and synovial fluid from the MTCP joint only and blood were collected 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours after beginning IORLP. Plasma urea and creatinine concentrations and clinical appearance of the MTCP joint region and infusion sites were determined daily for 7 days. Results were compared with those of a separate IVRLP study.

Results—Clinical complications were not observed after IORLP. Mean vancomycin concentration in the MTCP joint was 4 μg/mL for 24 hours after IORLP. Compared with IORLP, higher vancomycin concentrations were detected in the DIP joint after IVRLP. Compared with IVRLP, higher vancomycin concentrations were detected in the MTCP joint for a longer duration after IORLP.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—IORLP with 300 mg of vancomycin in a 0.5% solution was safe and may be clinically useful in horses. Intravenous and intraosseous routes may be better indicated for infectious processes in the DIP and MTCP joints, respectively.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate clinical variables, regional concentrations, and pharmacokinetics of vancomycin in the synovial fluid of distal forelimb joints of horses after IV regional limb perfusion.

Animals—6 horses.

Procedure—Vancomycin was administered via IV regional limb perfusion to the distal portion of the forelimbs of anesthetized horses. Drug (300 mg of vancomycin hydrochloride in 60 mL of saline [0.9% NaCl] solution) was infused into 1 forelimb, whereas the contralateral limb served as a control and was perfused with 60 mL of saline solution. Solutions were injected into the lateral digital vein after digital exsanguination. Synovial fluid from the metacarpophalangeal (MTCP) and distal interphalangeal (DIP) joints and systemic blood were collected prior to perfusion and 15, 30, 45, 65, and 90 minutes after initiation of the infusion. Synovial fluid from the MTCP joint and blood were also obtained at 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours after infusion. Plasma urea and creatinine concentrations, degree of lameness, and certain clinical variables involving the MTCP joint and infusion site were assessed for 7 days. Results were compared between the vancomycin treatment and control groups.

Results—No complications or significant differences in renal function, lameness, or clinical variables were observed between groups. Vancomycin concentrations exceeded 4 µg/mL in MTCP joints for approximately 20 hours. Higher concentrations were reached in DIP joints than in MTCP joints.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—IV regional limb perfusion with 300 mg of vancomycin as a 0.5% solution was safe and may be useful in horses as treatment for distal limb infections. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:2107–2113)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research