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  • Author or Editor: Javier Guitian x
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To estimate the extent to which exposure to Leptospira hardjo before or at the time of first parturition was associated with infertility and abortion during the first lactation among dairy cows that had not been vaccinated for ≥ 12 months.


207 first-lactation cows from a herd of 2,000 lactating cows.


Cows were tested for antibodies to L hardjo within 40 days after calving. Time from calving to first breeding, time from calving to conception, number of breedings per conception, and risk of abortion were compared between cows seropositive for L hardjo and cows that were seronegative.


For the 9 (4.3%) cows that were seropositive for L hardjo, median time from calving to conception (132.6 days) was significantly longer than time for seronegative cows (95.4 days). Cows that were seropositive were twice as likely (relative risk, 2.07) to fail to conceive as seronegative cows. Mean number of breedings required per conception for seropositive cows (3.4) was significantly higher than that for seronegative cows (2.1). The proportion of seropositive cows that aborted was not significantly different from the proportion of seronegative cows that aborted.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Exposure of nonvaccinated dairy cows to L hardjo can be associated with a subsequent reduction in fertility, as indicated by a greater time from calving to conception and higher number of breedings required per conception. The efficacy of leptospiral vaccines should be assessed to determine whether vaccination will minimize herd infertility associated with L hardjo infection. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215:515–518)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine whether hepatic portal vascularity, as assessed by intraoperative mesenteric portovenography (IMP), is related to outcome in dogs undergoing attenuation of single congenital portosystemic shunts (CPSSs).

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—45 dogs, each with a single CPSS, in which IMP was performed before and after temporary complete occlusion of the shunting vessel and that underwent complete (17 dogs) or partial (28 dogs) CPSS attenuation (surgery 1).

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed for signalment, clinical history, and bile acids stimulation test results. Intrahepatic portal vessel (IPV) opacification in pre- and postocclusion portovenograms was graded to determine whether the degree of opacification was correlated with the degree of shunt attenuation, clinical or biochemical factors, or long-term clinical outcome. In 17 of 28 dogs that had partial CPSS attenuation, these procedures were subsequently repeated (surgery 2) to achieve complete (14 dogs) or further partial (3 dogs) CPSS attenuation.

Results—Compared with preattenuation findings, IPV opacification increased significantly after partial or complete CPSS attenuation. The degree of IPV opacification before and after CPSS occlusion (surgery 1) was greater in dogs that tolerated complete versus partial CPSS attenuation and was correlated positively with age. The degree of IPV opacification following CPSS occlusion (surgery 1) was maximal in all dogs without encephalopathy and was correlated negatively with follow-up preprandial serum bile acids concentrations and positively with clinical improvement.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Data suggest that IMP can be used to assess changes in IPV blood flow and help predict outcome following attenuation of single CPSSs in dogs.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association