OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of trazodone treatment on behavioral signs of stress in hospitalized dogs.
DESIGN Prospective observational study.
ANIMALS 120 client-owned dogs.
PROCEDURES Hospitalized dogs administered trazodone (n = 60) were observed for stress-related signs or behaviors ≤ 45 minutes after the drug was administered (time 1) and approximately 90 minutes later (time 2). Dogs that did not receive trazodone (n = 60) were selected to serve as controls for environmental stimuli that could affect behavior and were observed at the same times. Signs or behaviors (scored as present or absent) were assessed individually and grouped into behavioral summation categories (frenetic [lip licking, pacing, panting, spinning, trembling, wet dog shake, whining, and yawning], freeze [averting gaze, pinning back ears, and whale eye sign], or fractious [growling, lunging, showing teeth, and snapping], with lifting of a forelimb and pupil dilation included in all categories). Results were compared between groups and within groups over time. Logistic regression was performed to assess associations between reduction in stress-related signs or behaviors and trazodone administration while controlling for environmental influences.
RESULTS Lip licking, panting, and whining were reduced (defined as present at time 1 and absent at time 2) in trazodone-treated but not environmentally matched dogs. The median number of stress-related behaviors and of frenetic and freeze behaviors was significantly lower at time 2, compared with time 1, in trazodone-treated dogs. Odds of reduced panting and reduced frenetic behaviors at time 2 for trazodone-treated dogs were > 2 times those for environmentally matched dogs.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that trazodone administration reduced stress-related signs and behaviors in hospitalized dogs and may thereby improve patient welfare.
OBJECTIVE To identify the geographic distribution of exhibition swine in the Midwestern United States, characterize management practices used for exhibition swine, and identify associations between those practices and influenza A virus (IAV) detection in exhibition swine arriving at county or state agricultural fairs.
DESIGN Cross-sectional survey.
SAMPLE 480 swine exhibitors and 641 exhibition swine.
PROCEDURES Inventories of swine exhibited at fairs in 6 selected Midwestern states during 2013 and of the total swine population (including commercial swine) in these regions in 2012 were obtained and mapped. In 2014, snout wipe samples were collected from swine on arrival at 9 selected fairs in Indiana (n = 5) and Ohio (4) and tested for the presence of IAV. Also at fair arrival, swine exhibitors completed a survey regarding swine management practices.
RESULTS Contrary to the total swine population, the exhibition swine population was heavily concentrated in Indiana and Ohio. Many swine exhibitors reported attending multiple exhibitions within a season (median number, 2; range, 0 to 50), with exhibited swine often returned to their farm of origin. Rearing of commercial and exhibition swine on the same premises was reported by 13.3% (56/422) of exhibitors. Hosting an on-farm open house or sale was associated with an increased odds of IAV detection in snout wipe samples.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The exhibition swine population was highly variable and differed from the commercial swine population in terms of pig density across geographic locations, population integrity, and on-farm management practices. Exhibition swine may be important in IAV transmission, and identified biosecurity deficiencies may have important public and animal health consequences.
To describe characteristics of intrahousehold interdog aggression (IDA) and dog and pair factors associated with a poor outcome (permanent separation, rehoming, or euthanasia of dogs).
305 pairs of dogs (610 dogs) with IDA.
The record database of a referral veterinary behavioral clinic was searched to identify pairs of dogs that were evaluated for IDA (IDA pairs) between September 2007 and September 2016. A standardized form was used to extract data for each IDA pair, including signalment and acquisition order of both dogs, history of IDA, behavioral interventions implemented, and outcome. Descriptive data were generated. Univariable logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with a poor outcome.
Most IDA pairs included at least 1 female dog (214/305 [70%]) and dogs of the same sex (188/305 [61.6%]). Resource guarding was the most common fight trigger (222/305 [72.8%]). Possessive aggression (guarding of physical resources) was the most common comorbidity for individual dogs (216/610 [35.4%]). The aggressor was acquired after the recipient in 181 of 305 (59.3%) pairs. Aggressors were a mean of 16 months younger and 1.5 kg (3.3 lb) heavier than recipients. Factors associated with a poor outcome included pairs of the same sex, history of bites that broke the skin, and aggression on sight of the recipient.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results suggested that behavior intervention should be provided quickly for IDA pairs with a history of bites that break the skin or uninhibited attacks on sight owing to the high risk for a poor outcome. Owners should be advised to avoid same-sex pairs during preadoption counseling.
Widespread use of antimicrobials in human and veterinary medicine drives the emergence and dissemination of resistant bacteria in human, animal, and environmental reservoirs. The AVMA and FDA Center for Veterinary Medicine have both taken public positions emphasizing the importance of incorporating antimicrobial stewardship in veterinary clinical settings; however, a model for implementing a comprehensive antimicrobial stewardship program in veterinary practice is not readily available.
In 2015, The Ohio State University College of Veterinary Medicine began developing a veterinary antimicrobial stewardship program modeled on existing programs in human health-care institutions and the 7 core elements of a successful hospital antimicrobial stewardship program, as defined by the CDC. The program includes comprehensive antimicrobial use guidelines, active environmental surveillance, and enhanced infection control procedures in The Ohio State University Veterinary Medical Center, along with routine monitoring and reporting of antimicrobial prescribing practices and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of common pathogens isolated from patients and the hospital environment. Finally, programs have been developed to educate clinicians, staff, and students on antimicrobial resistance and appropriate antimicrobial prescribing practices.
The antimicrobial stewardship program has been designed to help clinicians and students confidently make judicious antimicrobial use decisions and provide them with actionable steps that can help them act as strong stewards while providing the best care for their patients. This report describes our program and the process involved in developing it, with the intent that the program could serve as a potential model for other veterinary medical institutions.