Objective—To identify the most common sites of
and possible predisposing factors for nonunions in
cats with fractures of the appendicular skeleton.
Animals—344 cats treated for fractures between
1998 and 2002, 18 of which developed nonunions.
Procedures—Information collected from the medical
records included signalment; type of trauma; fracture
location, orientation, and type; degrees of displacement
and comminution; treatment; and outcome.
Results—The tibia and proximal portion of the ulna
were identified as the most common sites for
nonunions. Factors significantly associated with
development of a nonunion included age, body
weight, affected bone, fracture type, degree of comminution,
and fixation type, with older cats, heavier
cats, cats with fractures of the tibia or proximal portion
of the ulna, cats with open fractures, cats with
comminuted fractures, and cats with fractures stabilized
with a type II external skeletal fixator being significantly
more likely to develop a nonunion. Eleven of
the 18 cats with nonunions had a successful outcome
following treatment of the nonunion.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that in cats, fractures involving the tibia and proximal
portion of the ulna are more likely to develop
nonunions than are fractures involving other sites but
that many factors may increase the risk of nonunion.
Use of excessively large and rigid type II external
skeletal fixators may be associated with development
of nonunions; however, type II external skeletal fixators
were commonly used to stabilize fractures in
sites predisposed to nonunion. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:77–82)
Objective—To describe the procedure for autologous
blood donation and associated complications in cats
undergoing partial craniectomy for mass removal.
Design—Prospective case series.
Animals—15 cats with intracranial mass confirmed
by computed tomographic scan, no evidence of renal
failure, and PCV ≥ 22%.
Procedure—One unit (60 ml) of blood was collected
and stored 7 to 17 days before surgery and transfused
during the perioperative period if needed. The
PCV was measured before donation, before surgery,
during surgery, and after surgery to assess effect of
donation on PCV before surgery and effect of transfusion
on PCV after surgery. Cats were evaluated for
donation complications, iatrogenic anemia, and
adverse reactions associated with administration of
Results—Complications associated with phlebotomy
were not detected. Fifteen cats underwent partial
craniectomy 7 to 17 days after blood donation;
all had histologic confirmation of meningioma by
examination of tissue obtained at surgery. Eleven
cats received autologous blood transfusions. None
of the cats received allogeneic blood transfusions.
Transfusion reactions were not observed. Subclinical
iatrogenic anemia was detected in 3 cats.
Two cats were considered to have received excessive
transfusion, and 3 cats received inadequate
transfusion. All cats undergoing partial craniectomy
were discharged from the hospital and were alive >
6 months after surgery.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Autologous
blood donation before surgery was considered safe
for cats undergoing partial craniectomy for resection
of meningioma. The only complication observed was
iatrogenic anemia. The procedure contributed to
blood conservation in our hospital. (J Am Vet Med