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- Author or Editor: Jason Pintar x
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OBJECTIVE To characterize findings in Shih Tzus with progressive superficial necrolytic dermatitis and degenerative vacuolar hepatopathy consistent with hepatocutaneous syndrome.
DESIGN Retrospective case series.
ANIMALS 31 Shih Tzus.
PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed to obtain information on signalment, history, treatment, outcome, and results of clinicopathologic testing, abdominal ultrasonography, and histologic examination of skin and liver specimens. A pedigree analysis was performed.
RESULTS There were 16 males and 15 females. Median age at the time of diagnosis was 8 years (range, 5 to 14 years). Common clinical signs included lethargy, inappetence, weight loss, and lameness. Twenty-five dogs had cutaneous lesions consistent with hepatocutaneous syndrome; the remaining 6 initially only had hepatic abnormalities, but 3 of the 6 subsequently developed cutaneous lesions. Common clinicopathologic abnormalities included microcytosis (15/24 [63%] dogs) and high serum alkaline phosphatase activity (24/24 [100%] dogs). Hepatic ultrasonographic findings included a hyperechoic or heteroechoic appearance to the parenchyma with innumerable hypoechoic nodules. Histologic hepatic lesions consisted of degenerative vacuolar (glycogen and lipid) hepatopathy associated with minimally fibrotic to nonfibrotic, noninflammatory, proliferative nodules. Pedigree analysis confirmed a common ancestry in 12 of 18 dogs. Median survival time was 3 months (range, 1 to 36 months).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that HCS may have a heritable component in Shih Tzus, although the condition may also be identified in Shih Tzus without affected relatives. Clinical, clinicopathologic, ultrasonographic, and histologic abnormalities in affected Shih Tzus were similar to those previously reported for dogs of other breeds with HCS. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2016;248:802–813)
Objective—To determine signalments, clinical features, clinicopathologic variables, imaging findings, treatments, and survival time of cats with presumed primary copper-associated hepatopathy (PCH) and to determine quantitative measures and histologic characteristics of the accumulation and distribution of copper in liver samples of cats with presumed PCH, extrahepatic bile duct obstruction, chronic nonsuppurative cholangitis-cholangiohepatitis, and miscellaneous other hepatobiliary disorders and liver samples of cats without hepatobiliary disease.
Design—Retrospective cross-sectional study.
Animals—100 cats with hepatobiliary disease (PCH [n = 11], extrahepatic bile duct obstruction , cholangitis-cholangiohepatitis , and miscellaneous hepatobiliary disorders ) and 14 cats without hepatobiliary disease.
Procedures—From 1980 to 2013, cats with and without hepatobiliary disease confirmed by liver biopsy and measurement of hepatic copper concentrations were identified. Clinical, clinicopathologic, and imaging data were compared between cats with and without PCH.
Results—Cats with PCH were typically young (median age, 2.0 years); clinicopathologic and imaging characteristics were similar to those of cats with other liver disorders. Copper-specific staining patterns and quantification of copper in liver samples confirmed PCH (on the basis of detection of > 700 μg/g of liver sample dry weight). Six cats with PCH underwent successful treatment with chelation (penicillamine; n = 5), antioxidants (5), low doses of elemental zinc (2), and feeding of hepatic support or high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets, and other hepatic support treatments. One cat that received penicillamine developed hemolytic anemia, which resolved after discontinuation of administration. Three cats with high hepatic copper concentrations developed hepatocellular neoplasia.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that copper accumulates in livers of cats as primary and secondary processes. Long-term management of cats with PCH was possible.