Objective—To determine mass, center of mass (COM), and moment of inertia (ie, body segment parameters [BSPs]) of hind limb segments by use of a noninvasive method based on computerized tomography (CT) in Labrador Retrievers with and without cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) disease and to provide regression equations to estimate BSPs of normal, CCL-deficient, and contralateral hind limbs.
Animals—14 clinically normal and 10 CCL-deficient Labrador Retrievers.
Procedures—Bone, muscle, and fat areas were identified via CT. Mass, COM, and moment of inertia were determined on the basis of tissue densities in the thigh, crus, and foot segments. Regression models were developed to determine predictive equations to estimate BSP on the basis of simple morphometric measurements.
Results—The thigh and crus of CCL-deficient limbs weighed less than in contralateral segments. Thighs weighed less in CCL-deficient than in normal limbs. The thigh moment of inertia was less in CCL-deficient than in contralateral limbs. The crural COM was located more distally in normal limbs, compared with other limbs. Predictive equations to estimate BSP varied by parameter, body segment, and limb status.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—BSPs of the thigh and crus varied with segment and status of the hind limb in Labrador Retrievers with or without CCL disease. Equations to estimate BSP on the basis of simple morphometric measurements were proposed, providing a basis for nonterminal studies of inverse dynamics of the hind limbs in Labrador Retrievers. This approach may offer new strategies to investigate the pathogenesis of nontraumatic joint diseases.
Widespread use of antimicrobials in human and veterinary medicine drives the emergence and dissemination of resistant bacteria in human, animal, and environmental reservoirs. The AVMA and FDA Center for Veterinary Medicine have both taken public positions emphasizing the importance of incorporating antimicrobial stewardship in veterinary clinical settings; however, a model for implementing a comprehensive antimicrobial stewardship program in veterinary practice is not readily available.
In 2015, The Ohio State University College of Veterinary Medicine began developing a veterinary antimicrobial stewardship program modeled on existing programs in human health-care institutions and the 7 core elements of a successful hospital antimicrobial stewardship program, as defined by the CDC. The program includes comprehensive antimicrobial use guidelines, active environmental surveillance, and enhanced infection control procedures in The Ohio State University Veterinary Medical Center, along with routine monitoring and reporting of antimicrobial prescribing practices and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of common pathogens isolated from patients and the hospital environment. Finally, programs have been developed to educate clinicians, staff, and students on antimicrobial resistance and appropriate antimicrobial prescribing practices.
The antimicrobial stewardship program has been designed to help clinicians and students confidently make judicious antimicrobial use decisions and provide them with actionable steps that can help them act as strong stewards while providing the best care for their patients. This report describes our program and the process involved in developing it, with the intent that the program could serve as a potential model for other veterinary medical institutions.