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  • Author or Editor: Jase A. Skelton x
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A 13-year-old 128-kg miniature donkey gelding was evaluated for right forelimb lameness of 7 weeks’ duration.


Muscular atrophy of the infraspinatus and supraspinatus muscles over the right scapula with a palpable bony prominence over the point of the shoulder was evident. At the walk, the cranial phase of the stride was reduced with adduction of the distal aspect of the limb, dragging of the toe, and lameness (grade, 4/5). Lateral and craniocaudal radiographs of the right shoulder joint revealed lateral luxation of the humerus in relation to the scapula with bony proliferation and remodeling of the humeral head.


Glenoid ostectomy was performed. Immediately after surgery, the donkey was able to intermittently stand squarely on the limb but maintained a reduced cranial phase of the stride at the walk. The donkey had no short-term complications and was discharged from the hospital 11 days after surgery. Following discharge, the donkey was confined to a box stall for 60 days, followed by a gradual increase in movement to full pasture turnout. The lameness continued to improve, and at 15 months after surgery the donkey was turned out in pasture and had mild lameness (grade, 3/5) at the trot. Mild muscular atrophy of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles was present with no signs of pain on palpation or manipulation of the limb. Shoulder joint radiography at 15 months after surgery revealed remodeling of the glenoid cavity of the scapula and humeral head with formation of a pseudoarthrosis.


Glenoid ostectomy should be considered as an alternative to shoulder joint arthrodesis in small equids with shoulder joint luxation. Other indications for this procedure could include chronic osteoarthritis or fractures affecting the shoulder joint.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To describe cryptorchidectomy performed with a paramedian or inguinal approach in domestic pigs and compare findings for commercial-breed pigs with those for pot-bellied pigs.


47 client-owned (33 commercial-breed and 14 pot-bellied) pigs.


Medical records were searched to identify pigs that underwent surgical treatment for cryptorchidism from 2000 to 2018. Signalment, location of retained testes, surgeon, surgical approach, surgery time, anesthesia time, and postoperative complications were recorded. Complications were assessed with long-term follow-up. Age and surgical variables were compared between commercial-breed pigs and pot-bellied pigs.


Retained testes were most commonly located in the abdomen (27/47 [57%] left-sided, 15/47 [32%] right-sided, and 2/47 [4%] bilateral); 2 pigs each had 1 retained testis in the inguinal region, and 1 pig had 1 retained testis in the abdomen and 1 in the inguinal region. Forty-four pigs with abdominally retained testes were treated successfully with a paramedian surgical approach, including 3 for which an inguinal approach was attempted first. An inguinal approach was successful for 3 pigs with inguinally retained testes and 1 with an abdominally retained testis. Standard castration techniques were used for normally descended and inguinally retained testes. Long-term follow-up was available for 34 pigs; minor complications were reported for 3 (9%). Pot-bellied pigs were significantly older than commercial-breed pigs. No other intergroup differences were found.


The paramedian surgical approach was successfully used for removal of abdominally retained testes in all pigs that underwent the procedure. The overall complication rate for cryptorchidectomy in the study sample was low.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association