OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of incidental adrenal gland masses identified in dogs undergoing abdominal CT.
DESIGN Retrospective case series.
ANIMALS 270 client-owned dogs.
PROCEDURES Medical records of dogs that underwent abdominal CT from June 2013 through June 2014 were reviewed. Patients were excluded if they had undergone CT because of a history or clinical signs of an adrenal gland mass or disease. Information collected included history, signalment, initial complaint, serum alkaline phosphatase activity, urine specific gravity, and whether abdominal ultrasonography was performed. Imaging reports generated by the board-certified radiologist who evaluated the CT images were reviewed.
RESULTS Incidental adrenal gland masses were detected in 25 of the 270 (9.3%) dogs. Dogs with incidental adrenal gland masses were significantly older (median, 12.0 years; range, 8.0 to 15.0 years) than dogs without (8.2 years; range, 0.1 to 13.1 years). Dogs examined for neoplasia were significantly more likely to have an incidental adrenal gland mass (22/138 [15.9%]) than were dogs examined for any other reason (3/132 [2.3%]), but these dogs were also significantly older. No other risk factors were identified. Histologic examination was performed in only 3 of the 25 dogs with incidental adrenal gland masses; 2 had cortical adenomas and 1 had a pheochromocytoma and cortical adenoma.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that a clinically important percentage of dogs undergoing abdominal CT will have incidental adrenal gland masses, with incidental masses more likely in older than in younger dogs.
To quantify the relative risk of intestinal dehiscence in dogs undergoing intestinal resection and anastomosis (IRA), compared with enterotomy, for surgical management of small intestinal foreign bodies, and to evaluate the association between nasogastric tube placement for early enteral nutrition (EEN) and hospitalization time.
211 dogs undergoing 227 surgeries for intestinal foreign body removal.
Medical records were reviewed for dogs undergoing a single-site sutured enterotomy or IRA for foreign body intestinal obstruction between May 2008 and April 2018. Multivariable logistic regression was used to quantify the association between surgical procedure and dehiscence. Multiple linear regression was used to quantify the association of nasogastric tube placement with total hospitalization time.
Dehiscence rates were 3.8% (7/183) and 18.2% (8/44) for enterotomy and IRA, respectively. Overall dehiscence rate for all surgeries was 6.6% (15/227). The odds of intestinal dehiscence for IRA were 6.09 times (95% CI, 1.89 to 19.58) the odds for enterotomy. An American Society of Anesthesiologists score > 3 (OR, 4.49; 95% CI, 1.43 to 14.11) and an older age (OR, 1.02 [95% CI, 1.01 to 1.02] for each 1-month increase in age) were significantly associated with greater odds of intestinal dehiscence, regardless of surgical procedure. Placement of a nasogastric tube was not associated with intestinal dehiscence or decreased total hospitalization time when controlling for the year of surgery.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Patients undergoing IRA were at a significantly higher risk of intestinal dehiscence, compared with patients undergoing enterotomy. Although this finding should not be used to recommend enterotomy over IRA, this information may be useful in guiding owner expectations and postoperative monitoring.