To investigate whether decompressive cystocentesis (DC) safely facilitates urethral catheterization (UC) in cats with urethral obstruction (UO).
88 male cats with UO.
Cats were randomly assigned to receive DC prior to UC (ie, DC group cats; n = 44) or UC only (ie, UC group cats; 44). Abdominal effusion was monitored by serial ultrasonographic examination of the urinary bladder before DC and UC or before UC (DC and UC group cats, respectively), immediately after UC, and 4 hours after UC. Total abdominal effusion score at each time point ranged from 0 (no effusion) to 16 (extensive effusion). Ease of UC (score, 0 [easy passage] to 4 [unable to pass]), time to place urinary catheter, and adverse events were recorded.
No significant difference was found in median time to place the urinary catheter in UC group cats (132 seconds), compared with DC group cats (120 seconds). Median score for ease of UC was not significantly different between UC group cats (score, 1; range, 0 to 3) and DC group cats (score, 1; range, 0 to 4). Median change in total abdominal effusion score from before UC and DC to immediately after UC was 0 and nonsignificant in UC group cats (range, −5 to 12) and DC group cats (range, −4 to 8). Median change in effusion score from immediately after UC to 4 hours after UC was not significantly different between UC group cats (score, −1; range, −9 to 5) and DC group cats (score, −1; range, −7 to 5).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
DC did not improve time to place the urinary catheter or ease of UC in cats with UO.
Objective—To determine the incidence of pathological fractures associated with appendicular primary bone tumors in dogs managed medically and to identify potential risk factors at the time of radiographic diagnosis that may be associated with eventual pathological fracture.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—84 dogs with primary long bone neoplasia treated medically.
Procedures—Medical records for dogs with a diagnosis of primary long bone neoplasia based on results of radiography that was confirmed subsequently at necropsy were reviewed. Owners elected medical treatment at a pain clinic. Data regarding clinical signs, diagnostic testing, pathological findings, and outcome were evaluated.
Results—84 dogs met study inclusion criteria with 85 limbs affected. Osteosarcoma was the most common tumor and was identified in 78 of 85 (91.8%) limbs. The median time from diagnosis to euthanasia was 111 days (range, 28 to 447 days). Pathological fractures were identified in 33 of 85 limbs (38%), with the femur most commonly affected, (8/14 [57.1%]), followed by the tibia (9/17 [52.9%]), humerus (10/27 [37%]), radius (5/25 [20%]), and ulna (1/2 [50%]). Logistic regression analysis indicated that tumors arising from long bones other than the radius had odds of eventual fracture 5.05 as great as the odds for tumors of the radius, and lytic tumors had odds of eventual fracture 3.22 as great as the odds for tumors that appeared blastic or mixed lytic-blastic.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that radial primary bone tumors were less likely and lytic tumors were more likely to fracture. The overall incidence of pathological fractures secondary to appendicular primary bone neoplasia in this study with patients treated by means of intensive management for bone pain was higher than previously reported.
Objective—To determine the sensitivity, positive predictive value, and interobserver variability of CT in the detection of bullae associated with spontaneous pneumothorax in dogs.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—19 dogs with spontaneous pneumothorax caused by rupture of bullae.
Procedures—Dogs that had CT for spontaneous pneumothorax caused by rupture of bullae confirmed at surgery (median sternotomy) or necropsy were included. Patient signalment, CT protocols, and bulla location, size, and number were obtained from the medical records. Computed tomographic images were reviewed by 3 board-certified radiologists who reported on the location, size, and number of bullae as well as the subjective severity of pneumothorax.
Results—Sensitivities of the 3 readers for bulla detection were 42.3%, 57.7%, and 57.7%, with positive predictive values of 52.4%, 14.2%, and 8.4%, respectively, with the latter 2 readers having a high rate of false-positive diagnoses. There was good interobserver agreement (κ = 0.640) for correct identification of bullae. Increasing size of the bulla was significantly associated with a correct CT diagnosis in 1 reader but not in the other 2 readers. Correct diagnosis was not associated with slice thickness, ventilation protocol, or degree of pneumothorax.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Sensitivity and positive predictive value of CT for bulla detection were low. Results suggested that CT is potentially an ineffective preoperative diagnostic technique in dogs with spontaneous pneumothorax caused by bulla rupture because lesions can be missed or incorrectly diagnosed. Bulla size may affect visibility on CT.