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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate the effect of high doses of orally administered levothyroxine sodium (LT4) on serum concentrations of triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) in euthyroid horses.

ANIMALS

12 healthy adult horses.

PROCEDURES

10 horses initially received water (vehicle) or 240 mg (5X treatment) or 480 mg (10× treatment) of LT4, and blood samples were collected at baseline (0 hours) and 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 18, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours after treatment to measure serum T3 and T4 concentrations. Three horses then received 480 mg of LT4 for 14 days, and T4 concentration was measured on days 0, 14, 21, 28, and 35. Changes in T3 and T4 concentrations were compared over time and among treatments.

RESULTS

One-time administration of LT4 resulted in variable but significant increases in both T3 and T4 concentrations for up to 120 hours; however, T3 and T4 concentrations rarely exceeded reference intervals with either treatment. Prolonged administration of 480 mg of LT4 resulted in a 15-fold increase in T4 concentration after 14 days, but concentration returned to day 0 values within 21 days after LT4 administration was discontinued.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

In euthyroid horses, administration of a high dose of LT4 resulted in mild increases in thyroid hormone concentrations; however, prolonged administration of high doses of LT4 resulted in markedly increased thyroid hormone concentrations that returned to pretreatment values within 3 weeks after discontinuation of LT4 administration. These results indicated complex kinetics of LT4 and suggested a possible saturation of T4 excretion in euthyroid horses.

Restricted access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the number and species of animals cared for by the PetSafe program at the Purdue University College of Veterinary Medicine (a community service offered to meet the short-term housing needs of pets, especially pets owned by victims of intimate partner violence) from 2004 through 2019 and collect information on duration of stay, outcome, health problems, and expenses.

ANIMALS

229 animals cared for by the PetSafe program.

PROCEDURES

Medical records were reviewed for information on species, breed, age, duration of stay, outcome of stay, client referral source, whether the animal had been cared for previously, health problems, medical interventions, and expenses incurred.

RESULTS

There were 124 dogs, 95 cats, 6 ferrets, and 4 sugar gliders; 187 of the animals were returned to their owners, 37 were rehomed, and 5 were euthanized because of medical conditions. The most common health problems were dental disease and dermatological complaints (eg, flea infestation and resulting fleabite dermatitis). None of the animals had physical evidence of abuse. Mean duration of stay was 22 days (range, 1 to 93 days), and mean ± SD cost per animal was $368 ± $341.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Over the 16-year period of the study, the number and species of animals cared for by the PetSafe program at Purdue and the health problems encountered in those animals were relatively stable, and the program was able to meet the relatively predictable financial costs incurred through existing sources of funding.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effect of ovariectomy on insulin sensitivity in horses and determine whether the effects of suppression of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis differ before and after ovariectomy.

Animals—6 healthy mares.

Procedures—The horses underwent an IV glucose tolerance test (IVGTT), an insulin sensitivity test, and a dexamethasone suppression test before and 5 weeks after ovariectomy. Body weight, serum cortisol and plasma ACTH concentrations, serum insulin-to-blood glucose concentration ratios, and changes in blood glucose concentration with time after injection of glucose or insulin were compared before and after ovariectomy.

Results—The dexamethasone injection resulted in a decrease in serum cortisol concentration before and after ovariectomy. In all horses, baseline plasma ACTH concentrations were within the reference range before and after ovariectomy. For each mare, results of an IVGTT before and after ovariectomy were considered normal. No significant differences in basal blood glucose concentration or time to reach baseline glucose concentration after an IVGTT were observed. Basal serum insulin concentration and serum insulin-to-blood glucose concentration ratios were not significantly different before or after ovariectomy, nor was the mean time to attain a 50% decrease in blood glucose concentration after insulin injection.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that ovariectomy does not appear to modify dexamethasone response in horses and that it does not modify short-term measures of insulin sensitivity. Findings suggested that horses undergoing ovariectomy are not at higher risk of developing equine metabolic syndrome or hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction and associated morbidity.

Restricted access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To develop and assess the short-term feasibility, maintenance, and complications associated with percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube placement in standing horses.

Animals—6 adult horses.

Procedures—Feasibility of the technique was evaluated in 2 horses. In each of 4 other horses, a PEG tube was maintained for 14 days and used to provide fluid requirements during the latter 7 days, before removal. Following air inflation of the stomach, each PEG tube was placed via a left intercostal approach; proper tube location was ascertained by percutaneous ultrasonography and gastroscopy. The horses underwent physical examinations, CBCs, and peritoneal fluid analyses before and at intervals after tube placement. Seven days after tube removal, horses were euthanized and necropsied.

Results—Placement of a PEG tube was feasible in all 6 horses. The 4 horses assessed long term tolerated water administration through the PEG tube and remained clinically stable throughout the 21-day experiment. However, during the period PEG tubes were in place, significant increases in some peritoneal and hematologic variables were detected. Postmortem evaluation revealed localized peritonitis in 1 horse and body wall inflammation along the PEG tube tracks in 3 additional horses.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Placement and maintenance of a PEG tube were tolerated well by the study horses, although peritoneal and systemic inflammation were detectable. Fluid requirements were adequately met with this technique, which could provide an alternative method for managing chronically dysphagic horses. Nevertheless, further research is warranted to evaluate the feasibility of enteral feeding by use of this approach in horses.

Restricted access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research