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  • Author or Editor: Janet R. Kovak x
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To identify preoperative predictors of survival and assess intraoperative and postoperative complications and survival rates for dogs undergoing adrenalectomy.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—41 dogs that underwent adrenalectomy.

Procedures—Records were reviewed to collect data regarding preoperative variables. Intraoperative and postoperative variables were also recorded. Variables were evaluated for association with survival duration via log-rank analysis for categoric variables and by use of Cox proportional hazards. Median survival times were calculated by use of Kaplan-Meier life table analysis.

Results—9 (22.0%) dogs did not survive to discharge. Intraoperative mortality rate was 4.8%. Overall Kaplan-Meier median survival time was 690 days. Variables significantly associated with shorter survival times included preoperative weakness or lethargy, thrombocytopenia, increased BUN concentration, increased partial thromboplastin time (PTT), increased aspartate transaminase (AST) activity, hypokalemia, intraoperative hemorrhage, and concurrent nephrectomy. Postoperative variables significantly associated with shorter survival times included pancreatitis and renal failure. In multivariate analysis, preoperative hypokalemia, preoperative increased BUN concentration, and concurrent nephrectomy were significantly associated with a shorter survival time.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A high mortality rate was associated with adrenalectomy in dogs; however, those that survived until discharge from a hospital had long survival times. Preoperative factors associated with a shorter survival time were weakness or lethargy, thrombocytopenia, increased BUN concentration, increased PTT, increased AST activity, and hypokalemia. Studies are needed to evaluate how treatment for these factors may affect or change outcome after adrenalectomy. Dogs with adrenal masses that require concurrent nephrectomy and cause intraoperative hemorrhage have a guarded prognosis.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate complications and outcomes associated with surgical placement of gastrojejunostomy feeding tubes in dogs with naturally occurring disease.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—26 dogs.

Procedures—Multiple preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables were evaluated. Daily postoperative abdominal radiographic examinations were performed to determine the presence of the following mechanical tube complications: kinking, coiling, knotting, and migration. Tube stoma abnormalities (erythema, cellulitis, and discharge) were observed daily and recorded by use of a standardized visual analog grading scale. Additionally, presence of complications was compared with median survival times.

Results—The most common indication for gastrojejunostomy tube placement was gastrointestinal disease (n = 11), with confirmed septic peritonitis in 8 of 11 dogs. Other indications for gastrojejunostomy tube placement included extrahepatic biliary surgery (n = 6) and pancreatic disease (9). Mean ± SD surgical time required for tube placement was 26 ± 14 minutes. Overall, mechanical tube complication rate was 46% (12/26), including coiling (7), migration (4), and kinking (2). Overall minor tube stoma complication rate was 77% (20/26) and included erythema (16), cellulitis (13), and discharge (17). Dislodgement or self-induced tube trauma resulted in accidental tube removal in 2 of 26 dogs, and inadvertent tube damage necessitated premature removal by the clinician in 1 of 26 dogs. Kaplan-Meier median survival time was 39 days with 13 of 26 dogs still alive.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Gastrojejunostomy tube placement affords flexibility in the postoperative nutritional regimen by allowing for postgastric feeding with simultaneous access to the stomach.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effect of preoperative antimicrobial administration on culture results in dogs undergoing cystotomy as a treatment for urolithiasis.

Design—Prospective controlled study.

Animals—41 dogs undergoing cystotomy for cystic calculi removal.

Procedures—Urine samples were collected at time of anesthetic induction and during surgery prior to cystotomy, and a mucosal biopsy and culturette swab was collected during surgery from a control group, which received antimicrobials only after surgical culture sample collection, and from an experimental group, which received antimicrobials at the time of anesthetic induction.

Results—17 of 41 patients had positive culture results at anesthetic induction. Twenty of 41 patients had positive results of cultures for the surgical sample. No dogs that had positive results before antimicrobial administration had negative results after antimicrobial administration. There were no significant changes to urinalysis results regardless of group. Calcium monohydrate uroliths were the most common stone removed (24/41), followed by magnesium ammonium phosphate uroliths (11/41).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—There was no difference in culture results (positivity and bacterial type) when antimicrobials were given at anesthetic induction versus after surgical culture sample collection for dogs undergoing cystotomy for cystic calculi removal.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To assess use of thoracoscopy to determine causes of pleural effusion in dogs and cats.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—15 dogs and 3 cats with pleural effusion.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed from 1998 to 2001 for dogs and cats that had exploratory thoracoscopy, biopsy, and histologic analysis to determine the etiology of pleural effusion. Intraoperative and postoperative complications were recorded. Surgical biopsy specimens were evaluated for quantity and quality for providing a histologic diagnosis.

Results—Biopsy specimens were deemed adequate in quantity and quality to render a histologic diagnosis in all animals. Etiology of the effusion was neoplasia in 8 animals and non-neoplastic pleuritis in 10 animals. Median survival time of animals with neoplasia was 15 days, whereas those with inflammatory diseases had median survival time of > 785 days. Postoperative pneumothorax was encountered in 2 animals subsequent to pulmonary biopsy. No other major complications were recorded.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Thoracoscopy is a diagnostic option that provides excellent viewing of intrathoracic structures and adequate biopsy specimens with minimal complications. This technique provides a less invasive alternative to thoracotomy for evaluating the etiology of pleural effusion. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:990–994)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association