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Abstract

Objective—To determine mortality rates and causes of death for thin (ie, lean or emaciated) cats and, if mortality rates were high, to determine factors associated with risk that cats would be thin.

Design—Cohort study.

Animals—1,138 cats examined at 27 private veterinary practices in the northeastern United States.

Procedure—Body condition of the cats was scored (emaciated, lean, optimally lean, optimal, heavy, obese) between 1991 and 1992. Follow-up information on whether cats had developed any illnesses, whether cats had died, and, if cats had died, cause of death was obtained between 1994 and 1996. Mortality risk for emaciated cats was estimated, using cats in optimal condition as the reference group.

Results—Survival curves for emaciated cats were significantly lower than those for cats of other body conditions. Compared with cats in optimal condition, emaciated cats were 4.4 times as likely to die during the follow-up period. However, after adjusting for age and excluding cats that died within 1 year after body condition was scored, emaciated cats were no longer significantly more likely to die. Emaciated cats were more likely to die of an unknown cause than were cats of optimal condition. Risk factors for emaciated body condition included preexisting illness, age, and Siamese breed.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that emaciated cats had a significantly higher risk of death, compared with cats in optimal body condition. Serious illness and advancing age accounted for much, and perhaps all, of this increased risk of death. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:347–351)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate treatment outcome in dogs with separation anxiety and owner compliance with and perception of effectiveness of discharge instructions.

Design—Cohort study.

Animals—52 dogs with separation anxiety.

Procedure—Sex, age at which the owner obtained the dog, age at which separation anxiety was first noticed, age at behavioral examination, and discharge instructions were obtained from medical records of each dog. Between 6 and 64 months after the behavioral examination, owners were contacted by telephone and questioned about the outcome of treatment, their compliance with discharge instructions, and their perception of the effectiveness of each instruction.

Results—Thirty-two (62%) dogs had improved, whereas 20 were the same, were worse, or had been euthanatized or given away. Mixed-breed dogs were significantly less likely to improve than purebred dogs. Compliance varied according to discharge instruction. Significantly fewer dogs with owners that were given > 5 instructions improved or were cured, compared with those with owners given fewer instructions. Twenty-seven dogs were also treated with amitriptyline or other medication; 15 (56%) improved.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Owners complied with instructions that involved little time such as omitting punishment and providing a chew toy at the time of departure. Owners were also willing to increase the dog's exercise but were not willing to uncouple the cues of departure from real departures or desensitize the dog to impending departure. Administration of psychoactive medication may be necessary to augment behavior modification techniques designed to reduce separation anxiety in dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:342–345)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the long-term risks and benefits of early-age gonadectomy, compared with traditional- age gonadectomy, among dogs adopted from a large animal shelter.

Design—Retrospective cohort study.

Animals—1,842 dogs.

Procedure—Dogs underwent gonadectomy and were adopted from an animal shelter before 1 year of age; follow-up was available for as long as 11 years after surgery. Adopters completed a questionnaire about their dogs' behavior and medical history. When possible, the dogs' veterinary records were reviewed. Associations between the occurrence of 56 medical and behavioral conditions and dogs' age at gonadectomy were evaluated.

Results—Among female dogs, early-age gonadectomy was associated with increased rate of cystitis and decreasing age at gonadectomy was associated with increased rate of urinary incontinence. Among male and female dogs with early-age gonadectomy, hip dysplasia, noise phobias, and sexual behaviors were increased, whereas obesity, separation anxiety, escaping behaviors, inappropriate elimination when frightened, and relinquishment for any reason were decreased.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Because earlyage gonadectomy appears to offer more benefits than risks for male dogs, animal shelters can safely gonadectomize male dogs at a young age and veterinary practitioners should consider recommending routine gonadectomy for client-owned male dogs before the traditional age of 6 to 8 months. For female dogs, however, increased urinary incontinence suggests that delaying gonadectomy until at least 3 months of age may be beneficial. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004; 224:380–387)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the prevalence of various lesion types detected by histologic evaluation of uterine biopsy samples collected from subfertile bitches.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—399 sexually intact bitches.

Procedures—Results of histologic evaluation of canine uterine biopsy samples submitted by a single veterinary practice and clinical histories of dogs from which samples were obtained were reviewed. Clinical data including age, reason for biopsy, and histopathologic findings were recorded. The prevalence of specific lesions was determined, categorized by severity and age, and statistically analyzed.

Results—Endometritis (170/399 [42.6%] cases) and cystic endometrial changes, including cystic endometrial hyperplasia (133/399 [33.3%]) were the most prevalent lesions in the study population. Eighty-nine of 170 (52.4%) cases of endometritis were characterized as chronic with predominantly lymphocytic or lymphoplasmacytic inflammatory infiltrates, 51 (30.0%) included mixed inflammatory reactions, and 30 (17.6%) were characterized as having acute inflammation with neutrophils, eosinophils, or both. Fibrosis was common (101/399 [25.3%] cases). Eosinophilic endometritis was significantly associated with a history of fetal loss during the same breeding cycle. No significant difference was found in prevalence of lesions among age groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The high prevalence of endometritis in this population of dogs suggested that acute and chronic endometritis may be related to subfertility in bitches. The association of eosinophilic endometrial infiltrates with a history of fetal loss may be an important diagnostic finding in dogs with endometritis.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To characterize the clients served by and the cats and dogs admitted to nonprofit spay-neuter clinics.

DESIGN Cross-sectional survey.

SAMPLE 2,154 dogs and 1,902 cats that were owned by 3,768 survey respondents and admitted to 22 nonprofit spay-neuter clinics across the United States between April 29, 2013, and January 24, 2014.

PROCEDURES Participating clinics distributed surveys to clients during each of 4 quarterly study weeks. The survey collected descriptive information about clients' pets and households as well as their decision-making regarding sterilization of their pets. For each of the study weeks, clinics reported the total number of surgeries, including those involving shelter animals, feral cats, and other owned animals.

RESULTS Respondents indicated that 49% of dogs and 77% of cats had not been examined previously by a veterinarian, except during vaccine clinics. Among animals ≥ 4 months of age, 1,144 of 1,416 (81%) cats and 572 of 1,794 (32%) dogs had not received a rabies vaccination. Previous litters were reported for 204 of 716 (28%) queens and 153 of 904 (17%) bitches. Most clients' (53%) household income was < $30,000 annually. Common reasons for clinic choice included cost; friend, neighbor, or family recommendation; and good reputation.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Nonprofit spay-neuter clinics predominantly served low-income clients and animals lacking regular veterinary care, in addition to animals from shelters and community cats. These clinics increase access to services needed for animal population control and public health.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the long-term risks and benefits of early-age gonadectomy, compared with traditional- age gonadectomy, among cats adopted from a large animal shelter.

Design—Retrospective cohort study.

Animals—1,660 cats.

Procedure—Cats underwent gonadectomy and were adopted from an animal shelter before 1 year of age; follow-up was available for as long as 11 years after surgery (median follow-up time, 3.9 years). Adopters completed a questionnaire about their cats' behavior and medical history. When possible, the cats' veterinary records were reviewed. Statistical analyses were conducted to identify any associations between the occurrence of 47 medical and behavioral conditions and the cats' age at gonadectomy.

Results—Among male cats that underwent early-age gonadectomy (< 5.5 months of age), the occurrence of abscesses, aggression toward veterinarians, sexual behaviors, and urine spraying was decreased, whereas hiding was increased, compared with cats that underwent gonadectomy at an older age. Among male and female cats that underwent early-age gonadectomy, asthma, gingivitis, and hyperactivity were decreased, whereas shyness was increased.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Gonadectomy before 5.5 months of age was not associated with increased rates of death or relinquishment or occurrence of any serious medical or behavioral condition and may provide certain important long-term benefits, especially for male cats. Animal shelters can safely gonadectomize cats at a young age, and veterinarians should consider recommending routine gonadectomy for client-owned cats before the traditional age of 6 to 8 months. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:372–379)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine in vitro susceptibility patterns of fungi associated with keratomycosis in horses in the northeastern United States and compare those patterns with results of studies from other geographic regions.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—68 horses with keratomycosis.

Procedures—Medical records of horses with a clinical diagnosis of keratomycosis, positive results of corneal fungal cultures, and susceptibility data were reviewed from the years 1987 to 2006. Fungal identification and in vitro antifungal susceptibility test results were recorded. The percentage of susceptible isolates was compared among antifungals for all isolates together and for the most common genera individually.

Results—74 fungal isolates from 68 horses that met inclusion criteria were identified. Aspergillus, Candida, and Fusarium spp were the most frequent isolates. Grouped isolates had the highest percentage of susceptibility to nystatin (87.7%), natamycin (87.5%), and clotrimazole (80.6%). Grouped isolates had the lowest percentage of susceptibility to fluconazole (15.8%) and miconazole (27.5%). Aspergillus spp (≥ 81.0%) were most susceptible to nystatin, clotrimazole, itraconazole, and natamycin. Candida spp (100%) were most susceptible to ketaconazole, natamycin, and nystatin. Fusarium spp (100%) were only consistently susceptible to natamycin.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—On the basis of in vitro susceptibility testing, nystatin, natamycin, or clotrimazole is recommended for initial topical treatment of keratomycosis in horses from the northeastern United States. Contrary to results of studies of ocular fungal isolates of horses from other regions, Candida spp were identified more frequently and miconazole had lower in vitro efficacy in the present study.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the in vitro fluoroquinolone susceptibility profiles of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from dogs with ulcerative keratitis.

Animals—27 dogs with P aeruginosa–associated ulcerative keratitis.

ProceduresP aeruginosa isolates from dogs with ulcerative keratitis were collected during a 3-year period. Isolates were tested by use of the disk diffusion method for their susceptibility to 7 fluoroquinolones that are available as commercial ophthalmic preparations. The antimicrobials included second- (ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, norfloxacin, and lomefloxacin), third- (levofloxacin), and fourth-generation (gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin) fluoroquinolones. Isolates were designated as susceptible, intermediate, or resistant to the various antimicro-bials. The percentage of susceptible isolates was compared among individual fluoroquinolones and among fluoroquinolone generations.

Results—None of the dogs had received topical or systemic fluoroquinolone treatment prior to referral. Twenty-seven P aeruginosa isolates were collected during the study period. In vitro, bacterial resistance to the tested fluoroquinolones was infrequently identified (24/ 27 isolates were susceptible to all fluoroquinolones evaluated); susceptibility percentages ranged from 88.9% to 100% for individual antimicrobials. There were no significant differ-ences among isolate susceptibilities to the individual antimicrobials or among generations of fluoroquinolones.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—On the basis of these in vitro data, none of the 7 evaluated fluoroquinolones (individually or collectively by generation) appeared to offer a clinically important advantage in the treatment of P aeruginosa–associated ulcerative keratitis in dogs. Among the P aeruginosa isolates collected from dogs with ulcerative keratitis in this study, the likelihood of susceptibility to the fluoroquinolones evaluated was high.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To assess whether the risk of development of hypothyroidism after treatment with iodine 131 (131I) was associated with the pattern of sodium pertechnetate Tc 99m activity in the thyroid gland detected via scintigraphy before treatment in cats with hyperthyroidism.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—165 cats.

Procedure—Medical records of cats with hyperthyroidism that had been treated with 131I (from 1990 to 2002) and had undergone scintigraphy of the thyroid gland before treatment were reviewed; data regarding signalment, scintigraphic findings (classified as unilateral, bilateral-asymmetric, bilateral-symmetric, or multifocal patterns), serum total thyroxine (T4) concentrations before treatment and prior to hospital discharge, and 131I treatment were collected. A questionnaire was sent to each referring veterinarian to obtain additional data including whether the cats subsequently developed hypothyroidism (defined as serum total T4 concentration less than the lower reference limit ≥ 3 months after treatment).

Results—50 of 165 (30.3%) 131I-treated cats developed hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism developed in 39 of 109 cats with bilateral, 10 of 50 cats with unilateral, and 1 of 6 cats with multifocal scintigraphic patterns of their thyroid glands. Cats with a bilateral scintigraphic pattern were approximately 2 times as likely to develop hypothyroidism after 131I treatment than were cats with a unilateral scintigraphic pattern (hazard ratio, 2.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.04 to 4.2).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cats with hyperthyroidism that have a bilateral scintigraphic pattern in the thyroid gland before 131I treatment appear to have a significantly higher risk of subsequently developing hypothyroidism, compared with cats with a unilateral scintigraphic pattern. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:1671–1675)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether sensitivity of detecting an anomalous portosystemic blood vessel during operative mesenteric portography varied with patient positioning.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—34 dogs with a portosystemic shunt diagnosed via scintigraphy or surgery.

Procedure—Portograms were evaluated for a portosystemic blood vessel. Sensitivity was calculated from results obtained with dogs in left lateral, right lateral, and dorsal recumbency and from results obtained with dogs in 2 or 3 positions. Differences in sensitivity among positions and between 2 examiners were evaluated.

Results—Sensitivity was 85, 91, and 100% in dorsal, right lateral, and left lateral recumbency, respectively. Sensitivity was lower in dorsal recumbency than in left lateral recumbency, although differences were not significant. There was no significant difference between sensitivity of results obtained in dorsal and right lateral recumbency or right lateral and left lateral recumbency. Sensitivity for combined right lateral and dorsal positions was 97%, which was better than that in dorsal recumbency alone, although the difference was not significant. Because sensitivity in left lateral recumbency was 100%, there was no need to evaluate the improvement obtained by combining the result of this position with the results of other positions.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Results of mesenteric portography varied with patient positioning. The optimal position varied among patients but left lateral recumbency may be better and dorsal recumbency worse. Sensitivity may be improved by performing the test with the patient in orthogonal recumbent positions. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001; 219:1251–1253)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association