Objective—To qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate
the characteristics of desflurane with regard to
the induction of and recovery from anesthesia in cats.
Procedure—Anesthesia was induced and maintained
with desflurane in oxygen. Individual minimum alveolar
concentration (MAC) values were determined;
anesthesia was maintained at 1.25 × MAC for a total
anesthesia time (including MAC determination) of 5
hours. Cats were allowed to recover from anesthesia.
Induction and recovery periods were video recorded
and later scored by use of a grading scale from 0 to
100 (100 being the best outcome). Timing of events
Results—The MAC of desflurane was 10.27 ± 1.06%,
and mean dose was 5.6 ± 0.2 MAC-hours. Times to
loss of coordination, recumbency, and endotracheal
intubation were 1.3 ± 0.4, 2.3 ± 0.3, and 6.4 ± 1.1 minutes,
respectively. Median score for quality of anesthetic
induction was 93 (range, 91 to 94). Times to
first movement, extubation, standing, and ability to
jump and land with coordination were 2.8 ± 1.0,
3.8 ± 0.5, 14.3 ± 3.9, and 26.4 ± 5.1 minutes, respectively.
Alveolar washout of desflurane was rapid.
Median score for quality of anesthetic recovery was
94 (range, 86 to 96).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Desflurane
was associated with rapid induction of and recovery
from anesthesia in cats; assessors rated the overall
quality of induction and recovery as excellent. Results
appear to support the use of desflurane for induction
and maintenance of anesthesia in healthy cats. (Am J
Vet Res 2004;65:748–751)
Objective—To compare pathologic findings and
results of adrenalectomy for adrenal gland tumors in
dogs with and without vena caval tumor thrombi.
Animals—40 dogs with adrenal gland tumors.
Procedure—Medical records were examined. An
exact logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate
associations between tumor type or right-sided
versus left-sided tumor involvement and development
of caval tumor thrombi and associations between
tumor thrombi, tumor type, or right- versus left-sided
location and perioperative complications and mortality
rate. Survival was compared between dogs with
and without tumor thrombi.
Results—Caval thrombi were detected in 25% of
dogs, including 3 of 28 (11%) dogs with an adrenocortical
tumor and 6 of 11 dogs with a pheochromocytoma.
A caval tumor thrombus was detected in 6 of
17 right-sided and 4 of 20 left-sided tumors.
Sensitivity and specificity of abdominal ultrasonography
for detection of caval thrombi were 80 and 90%,
respectively. Intraoperative and postoperative complications
developed in 15 and 51% of dogs, respectively.
The mortality rate was 22%. There were no significant
differences in perioperative morbidity and
mortality rates between dogs with and without tumor
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Caval thrombi
associated with adrenal gland tumors are amenable
to adrenalectomy and thrombectomy without significantly
increased perioperative morbidity and mortality
rates, assuming the surgeon is experienced in appropriate
techniques. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223: