OBJECTIVE To determine the rate of and factors associated with survival to hospital discharge in dogs with uroabdomen.
DESIGN Retrospective case series.
ANIMALS 43 dogs with uroabdomen confirmed at 2 veterinary teaching hospitals from 2006 through 2015.
PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed and data extracted regarding cause and location of urinary tract rupture, serum creatinine concentration and other variables at hospital admission, and outcomes. Variables were tested for associations with survival to hospital discharge.
RESULTS Urinary tract rupture occurred in the urinary bladder (n = 24 [56%]), urethra (11 [26%]), kidney (2 [5%]), ureter (1 [2%]), both the urinary bladder and kidney (1 [2%]), and undetermined sites (4 [9%]). Rupture causes included traumatic (20 [47%]), obstructive (9 [21%]), and iatrogenic (7 [16%]) or were unknown (7 [16%]). Surgery was performed for 37 (86%) dogs; the defect was identified and surgically corrected in 34 (92%) of these dogs. Hypotension was the most common intraoperative complication. Nineteen dogs had information recorded on postoperative complications, of which 10 (53%) had complications that most often included death (n = 3) and regurgitation (3). Thirty-four (79%) dogs survived to hospital discharge. Dogs with intraoperative or postoperative complications were significantly less likely to survive than dogs without complications. Serum creatinine concentration at admission was not associated with survival to discharge.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE A high proportion of dogs with uroabdomen survived to hospital discharge. No preoperative risk factors for nonsurvival were identified. Treatment should be recommended to owners of dogs with uroabdomen.
An 8-year-old 6.8-kg neutered male Dachshund was presented for evaluation of vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia, and swelling over the right perineal region. The dog had a history of a bilateral perineal herniorrhaphy and castration 14 months prior to presentation.
Bilateral perineal hernias were confirmed by digital rectal examination. Abdominal ultrasonography confirmed the presence of intestine within the right hernia. Three days after admission to the hospital, the region of the right perineal hernia became painful, erythematous, and edematous. Computed tomography revealed jejunal incarceration within the right hernia with dilation of 1 jejunal segment that indicated intestinal obstruction.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME
Abdominal exploratory surgery was performed, during which irreducible small intestinal incarceration was confirmed. Intra-abdominal jejunal resection and anastomosis was performed, and an approximately 13-cm-long section of the jejunum was resected. Bilateral perineal herniorrhaphies with internal obturator and superficial gluteal muscle transposition were performed. Six months after surgery, digital rectal examination of the dog revealed that the repair was intact. The dog had no perineal hernia–related clinical signs at the time of the recheck examination.
For the dog of the present report, surgical management of small intestinal strangulation associated with a perineal hernia was successful. Although a portion of the small intestines can frequently be found within perineal hernias in dogs, perineal hernia-related small intestinal strangulation has not been previously described, to the authors’ knowledge. Veterinarians and clients should be aware of this potential complication secondary to perineal hernia and be prepared to perform an abdominal surgical procedure to address small intestinal incarceration in affected dogs.
OBJECTIVE To identify risk factors for temporary tracheostomy tube placement (TTTP) following surgery for alleviation of signs associated with brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome (BOAS) in dogs.
DESIGN Retrospective case-control study.
ANIMALS 122 client-owned dogs with BOAS that underwent surgery to alleviate clinical signs (BOAS surgery).
PROCEDURES The medical records database of a veterinary teaching hospital was searched to identify dogs that underwent BOAS surgery from January 2007 through March 2016. Of the 198 dogs identified, 12 required postoperative TTTP (cases); 110 of the remaining 186 dogs were randomly selected as controls. Data regarding signalment and select preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables were extracted from the medical record of each dog. Variables were compared between cases and controls and evaluated for an association with the odds of postoperative TTTP.
RESULTS Body condition score, tracheal diameter-to-thoracic inlet ratio, staphylectomy technique, and mortality rate did not differ significantly between cases and controls. The odds of postoperative TTTP increased approximately 30% (OR, 1.3) for each 1-year increase in patient age. Postoperative administration of corticosteroids and presence of pneumonia were also positively associated with the odds of postoperative TTTP. Median duration of hospitalization was significantly longer for cases than controls.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Age was positively associated with the odds of TTTP in dogs after BOAS surgery, and TTTP led to prolonged hospitalization. Thus, early identification and intervention may be beneficial for dogs with BOAS. The associations between TTTP and postoperative corticosteroid use or pneumonia were likely not causal, but reflective of patient disease severity.
To identify differential microRNA (miRNA) expression in dogs with splenic hemangiosarcoma, splenic hematoma, and histologically normal spleens.
Dogs with splenic hemangiosarcoma (n = 10), splenic hematoma (n = 5), and histologically normal spleens (n = 5).
Splenic tissue and serum samples were collected from dogs with splenic masses (ie, hemangiosarcoma or hematoma samples) and healthy control dogs (ie, control samples), and total RNA was extracted. Reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR was performed with 28 miRNAs associated with hemangiosarcoma, angiosarcoma, or associated genes. Differential expression analysis was performed.
Control tissue and serum samples had similar miRNA expression patterns, and hemangiosarcoma tissue and serum samples did not. Hemangiosarcoma serum samples had higher expression than hemangiosarcoma tissue for 13 miRNAs and lower expression for 1 miRNA. Control tissue and hemangiosarcoma tissue had varying expressions for 12 miRNAs, with 10 more highly expressed in control samples and 2 more highly expressed in hemangiosarcoma samples. Five miRNAs (miR-214-3p, miR-452, miR-494-3p, miR-497-5p, miR-543) had significantly different expression in serum between dogs with splenic masses (ie, hemangiosarcoma or hematoma) and serum of dogs with histologically normal spleens, with higher expression in the serum of dogs with splenic masses for all 5 miRNAs.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
5 circulating miRNAs were identified that distinguished dogs with splenic hemangiosarcoma or hematoma from those with histologically normal spleens. These 5 miRNAs had higher expression in dogs with splenic masses, indicating upregulation of these circulating miRNAs occurs in these splenic disease states. These miRNAs may be useful as a noninvasive screening tool that uses serum to identify dogs with splenic masses.
To characterize abdominal lymphatic drainage in cats after thoracic duct ligation (TDL) and cisterna chyli ablation (CCA).
7 purpose-bred research cats.
Baseline CT lymphangiography was performed. A popliteal lymph node was injected with iohexol, and images were acquired at 5-minute intervals for 15 minutes. Cats underwent TDL and CCA; methylene blue was used to aid in identifying lymphatic vessels. The CT lymphangiography was repeated immediately after and 30 days after surgery. All cats were euthanized and necropsied.
Results of baseline CT lymphangiography were unremarkable for all 7 cats. Only 5 cats completed the study. Leakage of contrast medium at the level of the cisterna chyli was seen on CT lymphangiography images obtained from all cats immediately after surgery. Evaluation of 30-day postoperative CT lymphangiography images revealed small branches entering the caudal vena cava in 2 cats, leakage of contrast medium into the caudal vena cava with no visible branches in 1 cat, and no contrast medium in the caudal vena cava in 2 cats. Contrast medium did not flow beyond the level of the cisterna chyli in any cat. Gross examination during necropsy revealed that all cats had small lymphatic vessels that appeared to connect to local vasculature identified in the region of the cisterna chyli.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Abdominal lymphaticovenous anastomoses formed after TDL and CCA in cats. This would support use of these procedures for treatment of cats with idiopathic chylothorax, although additional studies with clinically affected cats are warranted.