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Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION

An 8-year-old 6.8-kg neutered male Dachshund was presented for evaluation of vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia, and swelling over the right perineal region. The dog had a history of a bilateral perineal herniorrhaphy and castration 14 months prior to presentation.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

Bilateral perineal hernias were confirmed by digital rectal examination. Abdominal ultrasonography confirmed the presence of intestine within the right hernia. Three days after admission to the hospital, the region of the right perineal hernia became painful, erythematous, and edematous. Computed tomography revealed jejunal incarceration within the right hernia with dilation of 1 jejunal segment that indicated intestinal obstruction.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

Abdominal exploratory surgery was performed, during which irreducible small intestinal incarceration was confirmed. Intra-abdominal jejunal resection and anastomosis was performed, and an approximately 13-cm-long section of the jejunum was resected. Bilateral perineal herniorrhaphies with internal obturator and superficial gluteal muscle transposition were performed. Six months after surgery, digital rectal examination of the dog revealed that the repair was intact. The dog had no perineal hernia–related clinical signs at the time of the recheck examination.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

For the dog of the present report, surgical management of small intestinal strangulation associated with a perineal hernia was successful. Although a portion of the small intestines can frequently be found within perineal hernias in dogs, perineal hernia-related small intestinal strangulation has not been previously described, to the authors’ knowledge. Veterinarians and clients should be aware of this potential complication secondary to perineal hernia and be prepared to perform an abdominal surgical procedure to address small intestinal incarceration in affected dogs.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the validity of the double two-thirds rule for a diagnosis of splenic hemangiosarcoma in dogs with nontraumatic hemoperitoneum due to a ruptured splenic mass.

SAMPLE

Systematic literature review.

PROCEDURES

3 databases (PubMed, CAB abstracts, and World of Science) were searched in November 2020. Articles were included if data on dogs with nontraumatic hemoperitoneum due to a splenic mass were included and subsequent pathologic diagnosis could be determined.

RESULTS

In total, 2,390 unique articles were identified, with 66 articles meeting the criteria for full-text review and 14 articles included for analysis. A total of 1,150 dogs were evaluated, with 73.0% (840/1,150) of dogs being diagnosed with a malignant splenic lesion and 27.0% (310/1,150) being diagnosed with a benign splenic lesion. Of the malignancies, 87.3% (733/840) were hemangiosarcoma. Levels of evidence were low, and bias was high as most included studies were retrospective case series.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The double two-thirds rule should be refined when evaluating dogs with nontraumatic hemoperitoneum from a ruptured splenic mass, with more dogs being diagnosed with a malignancy and hemangiosarcoma specifically than the double two-thirds rule indicates. These findings may be useful in an emergency setting to guide owners on potential diagnoses for dogs with nontraumatic hemoperitoneum due to a ruptured splenic mass. However, there remains a portion of these dogs with benign conditions and nonhemangiosarcoma malignancies that may have a good long-term prognosis compared to dogs with hemangiosarcoma. Studies with higher levels of evidence, lower risks of bias, and large case numbers are needed in the literature.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine the rate of and factors associated with survival to hospital discharge in dogs with uroabdomen.

DESIGN Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS 43 dogs with uroabdomen confirmed at 2 veterinary teaching hospitals from 2006 through 2015.

PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed and data extracted regarding cause and location of urinary tract rupture, serum creatinine concentration and other variables at hospital admission, and outcomes. Variables were tested for associations with survival to hospital discharge.

RESULTS Urinary tract rupture occurred in the urinary bladder (n = 24 [56%]), urethra (11 [26%]), kidney (2 [5%]), ureter (1 [2%]), both the urinary bladder and kidney (1 [2%]), and undetermined sites (4 [9%]). Rupture causes included traumatic (20 [47%]), obstructive (9 [21%]), and iatrogenic (7 [16%]) or were unknown (7 [16%]). Surgery was performed for 37 (86%) dogs; the defect was identified and surgically corrected in 34 (92%) of these dogs. Hypotension was the most common intraoperative complication. Nineteen dogs had information recorded on postoperative complications, of which 10 (53%) had complications that most often included death (n = 3) and regurgitation (3). Thirty-four (79%) dogs survived to hospital discharge. Dogs with intraoperative or postoperative complications were significantly less likely to survive than dogs without complications. Serum creatinine concentration at admission was not associated with survival to discharge.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE A high proportion of dogs with uroabdomen survived to hospital discharge. No preoperative risk factors for nonsurvival were identified. Treatment should be recommended to owners of dogs with uroabdomen.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To characterize abdominal lymphatic drainage in cats after thoracic duct ligation (TDL) and cisterna chyli ablation (CCA).

ANIMALS

7 purpose-bred research cats.

PROCEDURES

Baseline CT lymphangiography was performed. A popliteal lymph node was injected with iohexol, and images were acquired at 5-minute intervals for 15 minutes. Cats underwent TDL and CCA; methylene blue was used to aid in identifying lymphatic vessels. The CT lymphangiography was repeated immediately after and 30 days after surgery. All cats were euthanized and necropsied.

RESULTS

Results of baseline CT lymphangiography were unremarkable for all 7 cats. Only 5 cats completed the study. Leakage of contrast medium at the level of the cisterna chyli was seen on CT lymphangiography images obtained from all cats immediately after surgery. Evaluation of 30-day postoperative CT lymphangiography images revealed small branches entering the caudal vena cava in 2 cats, leakage of contrast medium into the caudal vena cava with no visible branches in 1 cat, and no contrast medium in the caudal vena cava in 2 cats. Contrast medium did not flow beyond the level of the cisterna chyli in any cat. Gross examination during necropsy revealed that all cats had small lymphatic vessels that appeared to connect to local vasculature identified in the region of the cisterna chyli.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Abdominal lymphaticovenous anastomoses formed after TDL and CCA in cats. This would support use of these procedures for treatment of cats with idiopathic chylothorax, although additional studies with clinically affected cats are warranted.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Ovariohysterectomy (OVH) is frequently recommended at the time of c-section in canines, yet prior literature suggests poor mothering ability and increased morbidity to the bitch with c-section with concurrent OVH (CSOVH). The study objective was to compare maternal survival, complications, and mothering ability between bitches that underwent c-section alone (CS) or CSOVH.

ANIMALS

125 bitches.

PROCEDURES

Medical records from 2014 through 2021 were retrospectively reviewed; owners were surveyed for information up to weaning.

RESULTS

80 bitches undergoing CS and 45 bitches undergoing CSOVH were identified. There was no difference in anesthesia duration, intraoperative complications, postoperative complications, mothering ability, puppy survival to weaning, or other variables compared between groups. CSOVH bitches had longer surgery times (P = .045; 54.4 ± 20.7 min vs 46.9 ± 16.6 min) and longer time from delivery to nursing (P = .028; 75.4 ± 22.3 min vs 65.2 ± 19.5 min). Ninety (72%) owners responded to the survey. All 90 bitches survived until puppy weaning. CSOVH bitches were more frequently perceived as painful postoperatively (P = .015).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Performing an OVH at the time of c-section does not pose a significant increase in risk of mortality, intraoperative complications, postoperative complications, or decreased mothering ability of the bitch. The increased duration of surgery and increased time from delivery to nursing in the CSOVH group were clinically insignificant. Appropriate postoperative pain management should be emphasized post-CSOVH. Based on these results, OVH should be performed concurrently with c-section if indicated.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To identify risk factors for temporary tracheostomy tube placement (TTTP) following surgery for alleviation of signs associated with brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome (BOAS) in dogs.

DESIGN Retrospective case-control study.

ANIMALS 122 client-owned dogs with BOAS that underwent surgery to alleviate clinical signs (BOAS surgery).

PROCEDURES The medical records database of a veterinary teaching hospital was searched to identify dogs that underwent BOAS surgery from January 2007 through March 2016. Of the 198 dogs identified, 12 required postoperative TTTP (cases); 110 of the remaining 186 dogs were randomly selected as controls. Data regarding signalment and select preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables were extracted from the medical record of each dog. Variables were compared between cases and controls and evaluated for an association with the odds of postoperative TTTP.

RESULTS Body condition score, tracheal diameter-to-thoracic inlet ratio, staphylectomy technique, and mortality rate did not differ significantly between cases and controls. The odds of postoperative TTTP increased approximately 30% (OR, 1.3) for each 1-year increase in patient age. Postoperative administration of corticosteroids and presence of pneumonia were also positively associated with the odds of postoperative TTTP. Median duration of hospitalization was significantly longer for cases than controls.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Age was positively associated with the odds of TTTP in dogs after BOAS surgery, and TTTP led to prolonged hospitalization. Thus, early identification and intervention may be beneficial for dogs with BOAS. The associations between TTTP and postoperative corticosteroid use or pneumonia were likely not causal, but reflective of patient disease severity.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To identify differentially expressed microRNA in the serum and renal tissues of cats with experimentally induced chronic kidney disease (CKD).

SAMPLE

Banked renal tissues and serum from 4 cats.

PROCEDURES

Cats previously underwent 90-minute unilateral ischemia with delayed contralateral nephrectomy 3 months after ischemia. Tissues were collected from the contralateral kidney at the time of nephrectomy and from the ischemic kidney 6 months after nephrectomy (study end). Serum was collected prior to ischemia (baseline serum) and at study end (end point serum). Total RNA was isolated from tissues and serum, and microRNA sequencing was performed with differential expression analysis between the contralateral and ischemic kidney and baseline and end point serum.

RESULTS

20 microRNAs were differentially expressed between ischemic and contralateral kidneys, and 52 microRNAs were differentially expressed between end point and baseline serum. Five microRNAs were mutually differentially expressed between ischemic and contralateral kidneys and baseline and end point serum, with 4 (mir-21, mir-146, mir-199, and mir-235) having increased expression in both the ischemic kidney and end point serum and 1 (mir-382) having increased expression in the ischemic kidney and decreased expression in end point serum. Predicted target search for these microRNA revealed multiple genes previously shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of feline CKD, including hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, transforming growth factor-β, hepatocyte growth factor, fibronectin, and vascular endothelial growth factor A.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

MicroRNAs were differentially expressed after CKD induction in this preliminary study. Regulation of renal fibrosis in feline CKD may occur through microRNA regulation of mRNAs of pro- and anti-fibrotic genes.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To identify differential microRNA (miRNA) expression in dogs with splenic hemangiosarcoma, splenic hematoma, and histologically normal spleens.

ANIMALS

Dogs with splenic hemangiosarcoma (n = 10), splenic hematoma (n = 5), and histologically normal spleens (n = 5).

PROCEDURES

Splenic tissue and serum samples were collected from dogs with splenic masses (ie, hemangiosarcoma or hematoma samples) and healthy control dogs (ie, control samples), and total RNA was extracted. Reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR was performed with 28 miRNAs associated with hemangiosarcoma, angiosarcoma, or associated genes. Differential expression analysis was performed.

RESULTS

Control tissue and serum samples had similar miRNA expression patterns, and hemangiosarcoma tissue and serum samples did not. Hemangiosarcoma serum samples had higher expression than hemangiosarcoma tissue for 13 miRNAs and lower expression for 1 miRNA. Control tissue and hemangiosarcoma tissue had varying expressions for 12 miRNAs, with 10 more highly expressed in control samples and 2 more highly expressed in hemangiosarcoma samples. Five miRNAs (miR-214-3p, miR-452, miR-494-3p, miR-497-5p, miR-543) had significantly different expression in serum between dogs with splenic masses (ie, hemangiosarcoma or hematoma) and serum of dogs with histologically normal spleens, with higher expression in the serum of dogs with splenic masses for all 5 miRNAs.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

5 circulating miRNAs were identified that distinguished dogs with splenic hemangiosarcoma or hematoma from those with histologically normal spleens. These 5 miRNAs had higher expression in dogs with splenic masses, indicating upregulation of these circulating miRNAs occurs in these splenic disease states. These miRNAs may be useful as a noninvasive screening tool that uses serum to identify dogs with splenic masses.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research