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Objective

To determine serologic and epidemiologic characteristics of an occupational group potentially at risk for Bartonella sp infection.

Design

Epidemiologic survey.

Sample Population

351 veterinarians, veterinary technicians, and other individuals attending a veterinary conference in Ohio.

Procedure

A serum sample was obtained from each individual and tested for antibodies to Bartonella henselae or B quintana. A 24-question survey also was administered regarding demographic, occupational, and exposure information.

Results

25 (7.1 %) individuals were seropositive for B henselae or B quintana. Forty-seven, of whom 5 were seropositive, reported a history of illness consistent with cat-scratch disease and 18, of whom 3 were seropositive, reported a previous diagnosis of cat-scratch disease. Of the variables analyzed, only years of experience with cats was correlated with seropositivity.

Clinical Implications

The overall seroprevalence for 2 species of Bartonella in this occupational group was only slightly higher than that reported from other surveys. Seroprevalences among veterinarians, veterinary technicians, hospital staff, and others were essentially identical. Small sample groups, high percentage of cat ownership among participants, unknown duration of seropositivity, and unknown prevalence of infection among cats were potential confounders. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;210:342–344

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Cats from several sources in Baltimore, Md, were tested for seropositivity to Rochalimaea henselae and R quintana. Co-infection with Toxoplasma gondii or feline immunodeficiency virus was assessed as a risk factor for infection with Rochalimaea spp.

Of 592 cats tested, 87 (14.7%) were seropositive for one or both Rochalimaea spp, although titers to R henselae were significantly higher than those to R quintana. Prevalence of seropositivity increased significantly with cat age and weight and was associated with seropositivity to T gondii but was not associated with gender. Prevalence of seropositivity was similar (12.5 to 14.4%) among groups of cats with some history of human contact but was higher among feral cats (44.4%). Whether cats are reservoirs or mechanical vectors of Rochalimaea spp that can cause diseases in people is still uncertain, but these findings indicated widespread infection of cats and suggested possible modes of transmission for Rochalimaea spp among cats.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To characterize clinical and epidemiologic features of SARS-CoV-2 in companion animals detected through both passive and active surveillance in the US.

ANIMALS

204 companion animals (109 cats, 95 dogs) across 33 states with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections between March 2020 and December 2021.

PROCEDURES

Public health officials, animal health officials, and academic researchers investigating zoonotic SARS-CoV-2 transmission events reported clinical, laboratory, and epidemiologic information through a standardized One Health surveillance process developed by the CDC and partners.

RESULTS

Among dogs and cats identified through passive surveillance, 94% (n = 87) had reported exposure to a person with COVID-19 before infection. Clinical signs of illness were present in 74% of pets identified through passive surveillance and 27% of pets identified through active surveillance. Duration of illness in pets averaged 15 days in cats and 12 days in dogs. The average time between human and pet onset of illness was 10 days. Viral nucleic acid was first detected at 3 days after exposure in both cats and dogs. Antibodies were detected starting 5 days after exposure, and titers were highest at 9 days in cats and 14 days in dogs.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results of the present study supported that cats and dogs primarily become infected with SARS-CoV-2 following exposure to a person with COVID-19, most often their owners. Case investigation and surveillance that include both people and animals are necessary to understand transmission dynamics and viral evolution of zoonotic diseases like SARS-CoV-2.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To establish a pathoepidemiological model to evaluate the role of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the first 10 companion animals that died while infected with SARS-CoV-2 in the US.

ANIMALS

10 cats and dogs that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and died or were euthanized in the US between March 2020 and January 2021.

PROCEDURES

A standardized algorithm was developed to direct case investigations, determine the necessity of certain diagnostic procedures, and evaluate the role, if any, that SARS-CoV-2 infection played in the animals’ course of disease and death. Using clinical and diagnostic information collected by state animal health officials, state public health veterinarians, and other state and local partners, this algorithm was applied to each animal case.

RESULTS

SARS-CoV-2 was an incidental finding in 8 animals, was suspected to have contributed to the severity of clinical signs leading to euthanasia in 1 dog, and was the primary reason for death for 1 cat.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

This report provides the global community with a standardized process for directing case investigations, determining the necessity of certain diagnostic procedures, and determining the clinical significance of SARS-CoV-2 infections in animals with fatal outcomes and provides evidence that SARS-CoV-2 can, in rare circumstances, cause or contribute to death in pets.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association