OBJECTIVE To compare the kinematics of the thoracic limb of healthy dogs during descent of stairs and a ramp with those during a trot across a flat surface (control).
ANIMALS 8 privately owned dogs.
PROCEDURES For each dog, the left thoracic limb was instrumented with 5 anatomic markers to facilitate collection of 2-D kinematic data during each of 3 exercises (descending stairs, descending a ramp, and trotting over a flat surface). The stair exercise consisted of 4 steps with a 35° slope. For the ramp exercise, a solid plank was placed over the steps to create a ramp with a 35° slope. For the flat exercise, dogs were trotted across a flat surface for 2 m. Mean peak extension, peak flexion, and range of movement (ROM) of the shoulder, elbow, and carpal joints were compared among the 3 exercises.
RESULTS Mean ROM for the shoulder and elbow joints during the stair exercise were significantly greater than during the flat exercise. Mean peak extension of the elbow joint during the flat exercise was significantly greater than that during both the stair and ramp exercises. Mean peak flexion of the elbow joint during the stair exercise was significantly greater than that during the flat exercise.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that descending stairs may be beneficial for increasing the ROM of the shoulder and elbow joints of dogs. Descending stair exercises may increase elbow joint flexion, whereas flat exercises may be better for targeting elbow joint extension.
Objective—To determine whether the active metabolite of leflunomide, A77 1726 (A77), inhibits replication of feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1) in cell culture.
Study Population—Crandell Rees feline kidney (CRFK) cell cultures.
Procedures—Cell cultures were inoculated with FHV-1 and treated simultaneously with concentrations of A77 ranging from 0 to 200μM. The antiviral effect of A77 was determined by use of conventional plaque reduction assays. The effect of A77 on viral load was determined via real-time PCR analysis, and transmission electron microscopy was used to evaluate the effect of A77 on viral morphology. To determine whether the antiviral effect was attributable to alterations in CRFK cell viability and number, CRFK cells were treated with various concentrations of A77 and stained with Annexin V and propidium iodide to assess apoptosis and a mitochondrial function assay was used to determine cell viability.
Results—Concentrations of A77 ≥ 20μM were associated with substantial reduction in plaque number and viral load. Concentrations ≥ 100μM were associated with complete suppression of plaque formation. At low concentrations of A77, clusters of intracytoplasmic virus particles that appeared to lack tegument and an external membrane were detected. Treatment of uninfected CRFK cell monolayers with A77 was associated with reduction in mitochondrial function with minimal evidence of apoptosis.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Leflunomide may be an alternative to current calcineurin-based immunosuppressive protocols used in feline organ transplantation because of its antiherpesviral activity.