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  • Author or Editor: Jane M. Manfredi x
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Abstract

Objective—To determine whether carpal brace application is a viable treatment for dogs with unilateral carpal ligament instability.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—14 client-owned athletic dogs.

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed to identify dogs treated with a brace for unilateral carpal valgus or varus instability between August 2008 and August 2011. Treatment included passive motion and isometric strengthening exercises during brace application.

Results—Of the 14 dogs, 11 were considered to have returned to normal function; 11 of 12 dogs returned to agility competition. Carpal measurements before treatment indicated the affected limb had significantly greater valgus measurements (median, 30°; range, 30° to 35°), significantly greater varus measurements (median, 15°; range, 15° to 25°), and significantly less flexion (median, 37.5°; range, 30° to 45°), compared with results for the contralateral carpus. Long-term monitoring revealed no differences in measurements between affected and contralateral limbs. Valgus measurements of the affected carpus at brace removal (median, 15°; range, 15° to 20°) and at the end of long-term monitoring (median, 15°; range, 15° to 20°) were significantly lower than measurements before treatment (median, 30°; range, 30° to 35°). Dogs had significantly lower lameness scores (assessed on a scale of 0 to 5) at brace removal (median, 0; range, 0) and at the end of monitoring (median, 0; range, 0 to 2), compared with scores before treatment (median, 3; range, 1 to 3).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Application of a carpal brace resulted in improved stability and resolution or reduction in lameness in dogs with carpal ligament instability.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To identify radiographic locations of soft tissue attachments in the tarsal region of horses and describe any variability in the gross anatomy of those attachments.

SAMPLE

15 cadaveric limbs from 8 adult horses.

PROCEDURES

8 limbs were used for dissection and radiography of soft tissue structures, with metallic markers used to identify radiographic locations of soft tissue attachments. The remaining 7 limbs were used to evaluate anatomic variations in the insertion of the tendon of the fibularis tertius muscle. A consensus list of preferred radiographic views for evaluating each soft tissue attachment was created.

RESULTS

The dorsoplantar, dorsoproximolateral-plantarodistomedial oblique (35° proximal and 45° lateral), dorsoproximomedial-plantarodistolateral oblique (10° proximal and 15° medial), and plantaroproximal-plantarodistal oblique (70° proximal; flexed) views were preferred for evaluating the collateral ligaments. The standard oblique views and plantaroproximal-plantarodistal oblique (70° proximal; flexed) view were preferred for evaluating the tendinous attachments of the gastrocnemius and superficial digital flexor muscles. All 4 standard views were necessary for evaluating the tendinous attachments of the cranial tibial and fibularis tertius muscles, the dorsal tarsal ligament, and the origin of the suspensory ligament. Three configurations of the insertion of the fibularis tertius tendon were identified grossly. In limbs with osteoarthritis of the distal tarsal joints, the dorsal tarsal ligament firmly adhered to the centrodistal tarsal joint.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that attachments of soft tissue structures in the tarsal region of horses were in distinct radiographically identifiable locations and that visualization of individual soft tissue attachments could be optimized with certain radiographic views, including some nonstandard views.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Endocrine disorders are associated with joint pain and tendon injury in humans, but the effects in the horse are only starting to be understood. Similar patterns of clinical signs and injury appear to affect horses and humans for both orthopedic and endocrine disorders, supporting the use of a one-health approach to tackle these issues. In this Currents in One Health, we will discuss common equine endocrinopathies, current testing recommendations, dietary management, genetic predispositions, and endocrine disorders’ effects on performance. Our aim is to use a one-health lens to describe current comparative research so that veterinarians can employ cutting-edge preventative, diagnostic, and therapeutic recommendations. Identified key gaps in knowledge include whether equine metabolic osteoarthritis exists, if steroid joint injections are safe in horses with endocrine disorders, and if the return to performance percentage improves with concurrent treatment of endocrine and musculoskeletal disorders. Key takeaways include that the relationship between endocrine disorders and musculoskeletal disease in the horse goes beyond laminitis to include lameness, muscle atrophy, suspensory ligament degeneration, osteochondritis dissecans, and potentially metabolic osteoarthritis. Approaches learned from human and equine comparative studies can offer insight into injury recognition and management, thus mitigating the impact of endocrine disorders on performance in both species. Readers interested in an in-depth description of current and future research involving pathophysiology, novel interventions, and multiomic approaches to identify individuals with athletic limitations induced by endocrine disorders are invited to read the companion Currents in One Health by Manfredi et al, AJVR, February 2023.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Cranial cruciate ligament disease (CCLD) is the most prevalent orthopedic problem in canines, affecting 3% to 5% of dogs, causing stifle instability, mobility dysfunction, and pain. The objective of this study was to evaluate the American Kennel Club field trial community’s knowledge of CCLD and estimate its perceived prevalence within this population.

SAMPLE

401 field trial participants responded, with 701 field trial canines reported.

METHODS

A survey instrument was emailed to a population of Retriever field trial participants to collect information on perceptions and experience with CCLD and current canine participants. Analyses included descriptive statistics, multiple logistic regression, and χ2 tests (significant at P < .05).

RESULTS

The majority of respondents appropriately identified the connection between genetics and CCLD (69%). There was under-recognition (6%) of the degenerative nature of the disease, with 61% inappropriately identifying trauma as the major cause. Respondents also indicated that a CCLD diagnosis in a dog’s sibling or offspring affected their breeding decisions less than a diagnosis in their parents, indicating a misunderstanding of genetics. More than half of respondents indicated prior experiences with CCLD. The reported occurrence of CCLD was found to be 12% (72/610) in field trial Labrador Retrievers.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

There is a lack of knowledge in the field trial community regarding CCLD. This population showed a higher owner-perceived occurrence of CCLD compared to data collected from medical records. Further investigation is warranted to validate the true prevalence of CCLD in field trial Retrievers.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Endocrinopathies affect multiple species in ever-increasing percentages of their populations, creating an opportunity to apply one-health approaches to determining creative preventative measures and therapies in athletes. Obesity and alterations in insulin and glucose dynamics are medical concerns that play a role in whole-body health and homeostasis in both horses and humans. The role and impact of endocrine disorders on the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and reproductive systems are of particular interest to the athlete. Elucidation of both physiologic and pathophysiologic mechanisms involved in disease processes, starting in utero, is important for development of prevention and treatment strategies for the health and well-being of all species. This review focuses on the unrecognized effects of endocrine disorders associated with the origins of metabolic disease; inflammation at the intersection of endocrine disease and related diseases in the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and reproductive systems; novel interventions; and diagnostics that are informed via multiomic and one-health approaches. Readers interested in further details on specific equine performance conditions associated with endocrine disease are invited to read the companion Currents in One Health by Manfredi et al, JAVMA, February 2023.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

Diagnosis of equine septic arthritis is not straightforward, and increasing time between onset, diagnosis, and treatment can have serious consequences for quality of life. Defensins are used in diagnosis of human joint infection. The presence of beta defensins (BDs) in equine synovial fluid and their utility as a biomarker of sepsis has not been investigated; therefore, our objectives were to (1) compare in vitro gene expression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated equine neutrophils to unstimulated neutrophils and (2) compare BD protein expression from normal, aseptically inflamed, and septic equine joints.

ANIMALS

5 horses for isolated neutrophil BD expression and 21 synovial fluid samples from 14 horses.

PROCEDURES

RT-qPCR analysis was performed for BD gene expression of stimulated and unstimulated equine peripheral neutrophils. BD protein expression was evaluated from equine joints with no disease, aseptic inflammation, and septic inflammation using a commercial ELISA designed for horses and analyzed with a Kruskal-Wallis test (significant at P < .05).

RESULTS

A significant increase was noted in expression of BD-3 in LPS stimulated as compared to unstimulated neutrophils. There were no significant differences in BD expression noted between joints with no disease, aseptic inflammation, and septic inflammation. Low case numbers and different types of cases in the aseptic inflammation group were main limitations. BD expression patterns in samples from stimulated equine peripheral neutrophils and synovial fluid were identified.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

BDs are detectable in equine synovial fluid and can be stimulated from peripheral neutrophils. Further examination is needed to define their role as biomarkers of joint disease.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research