To evaluate the effect of a constant rate infusion of ketamine on cardiac index (CI) in sheep, as estimated using noninvasive cardiac output (NICO) monitoring by partial carbon dioxide rebreathing, when anesthetized with sevoflurane at the previously determined minimum alveolar concentration that blunts adrenergic responses (MACBAR).
12 healthy Dorset-crossbred adult sheep.
Sheep were anesthetized 2 times in a balanced placebo-controlled crossover design. Anesthesia was induced with sevoflurane delivered via a tight-fitting face mask and maintained at MACBAR. Following induction, sheep received either ketamine (1.5 mg/kg IV, followed by a constant rate infusion of 1.5 mg/kg/h) or an equivalent volume of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (placebo). After an 8-day washout period, each sheep received the alternate treatment. NICO measurements were performed in triplicate 20 minutes after treatment administration and were converted to CI. Blood samples were collected prior to the start of NICO measurements for analysis of ketamine plasma concentrations. The paired t test was used to compare CI values between groups and the ketamine plasma concentrations with those achieved during the previous study.
Mean ± SD CI of the ketamine and placebo treatments were 2.69 ± 0.65 and 2.57 ± 0.53 L/min/m2, respectively. No significant difference was found between the 2 treatments. Mean ketamine plasma concentration achieved prior to the NICO measurement was 1.37 ± 0.58 µg/mL, with no significant difference observed between the current and prior study.
Ketamine, at the dose administered, did not significantly increase the CI in sheep when determined by partial carbon dioxide rebreathing.
To determine the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of methadone after IV or IM administration to isoflurane-anesthetized chickens.
6 healthy adult Hy-Line hens.
In a randomized crossover-design study, methadone (6 mg/kg) was administered IV and IM to isoflurane-anesthetized chickens with a 1-week washout period between experiments. Blood samples were collected immediately before and at predetermined time points up to 480 minutes after methadone administration. Plasma concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, and appropriate compartmental models were fit to the plasma concentration-versus-time data. Cardiorespiratory variables were compared between treatments and over time with mixed-effect repeated-measures analysis.
A 3-compartment model best described the changes in plasma methadone concentration after IV or IM administration. Estimated typical values for volumes of distribution were 692 mL/kg for the central compartment and 2,439 and 2,293 mL/kg for the first and second peripheral compartments, respectively, with metabolic clearance of 23.3 mL/kg/min and first and second distributional clearances of 556.4 and 51.8 mL/kg/min, respectively. Typical bioavailability after IM administration was 79%. Elimination half-life was 177 minutes, and maximum plasma concentration after IM administration was 950 ng/mL. Heart rate was mildly decreased at most time points beginning 5 minutes after IV or IM drug administration.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Disposition of methadone in isoflurane-anesthetized chickens was characterized by a large volume of distribution and moderate clearance, with high bioavailability after IM administration. Additional studies are warranted to assess pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of methadone in awake chickens.
Objective—To compare preoperative administration
of meloxicam and butorphanol to perioperative administration
of butorphanol alone for control of postoperative
signs of pain in dogs.
Animals—40 client-owned dogs scheduled for surgical
repair of a cranial cruciate ligament rupture.
Procedure—Group-1 dogs received butorphanol (0.2
mg/kg, IV) and meloxicam (0.2 mg/kg, IV) just prior to
surgery. Group-2 dogs received butorphanol just prior
to surgery (0.2 mg/kg, IV) and at incision closure (0.1
mg/kg, IV). Pain assessment began 1 to 2 hours
before surgery and from extubation until 24 hours
after surgery by obtaining the following measurements:
the visual analog scale (VAS) score, cumulative
pain score (CPS), adjusted cumulative pain score,
modified cumulative pain score, and the adjusted
modified cumulative pain score (AMCPS). Serum cortisol
concentration was measured between 12 to 24
and between 1 to 2 hours prior to surgery, and at 30
minutes, and 1, 2, 4, 8, 18, and 24 hours after extubation.
Results—No significant differences between treatment
groups were observed in CPS or VAS score. At
8, 9, 10, and 11 hours after extubation, meloxicambutorphanol-
treated dogs had a significantly lower
AMCPS, compared with butorphanol-alone-treated
dogs. Total serum cortisol concentration (area under
the curve) during the measurement period was significantly
lower in meloxicam-butorphanol-treated
dogs, compared with butorphanol-alone treated dogs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Preoperative
single dose administration of meloxicam-butorphanol
is equivalent to or slightly better than the administration
of 2 perioperative doses of butorphanol for the
control of postoperative signs of pain in dogs. (Am J
Vet Res 2002;63:1557–1563)
OBJECTIVE To compare the doses of propofol required to induce general anesthesia in dogs premedicated with acepromazine maleate or trazodone hydrochloride and compare the effects of these premedicants on cardiovascular variables in dogs anesthetized for orthopedic surgery.
PROCEDURES 15 dogs received acepromazine (0.01 to 0.03 mg/kg [0.005 to 0.014 mg/lb], IM) 30 minutes before anesthetic induction and 15 received trazodone (5 mg/kg [2.27 mg/lb] for patients > 10 kg or 7 mg/kg [3.18 mg/lb] for patients ≤ 10 kg, PO) 2 hours before induction. Both groups received morphine sulfate (1 mg/kg [0.45 mg/lb], IM) 30 minutes before induction. Anesthesia was induced with propofol (4 to 6 mg/kg [1.82 to 2.73 mg/lb], IV, to effect) and maintained with isoflurane or sevoflurane in oxygen. Bupivacaine (0.5 mg/kg [0.227 mg/lb]) and morphine (0.1 mg/kg [0.045 mg/lb]) were administered epidurally. Dogs underwent tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (n = 22) or tibial tuberosity advancement (8) and were monitored throughout anesthesia. Propofol induction doses and cardiovascular variables (heart rate and systemic, mean, and diastolic arterial blood pressures) were compared between groups.
RESULTS The mean dose of propofol required for anesthetic induction and all cardiovascular variables evaluated did not differ between groups. Intraoperative hypotension developed in 6 and 5 dogs of the acepromazine and trazodone groups, respectively; bradycardia requiring intervention developed in 3 dogs/group. One dog that received trazodone had priapism 24 hours later and was treated successfully. No other adverse effects were reported.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE At the described dosages, cardiovascular effects of trazodone were similar to those of acepromazine in healthy dogs undergoing anesthesia for orthopedic surgery.
To compare the effect of a circulating warm water blanket (WWB) in combination with a heated humidified breathing circuit (HHBC) heated to 45 °C on rectal temperature (RT) in dogs undergoing general anesthesia for elective ovariohysterectomies.
29 healthy dogs.
Dogs in the experimental group (n = 8) and dogs in the control group (21) were connected to an HHBC and a conventional rebreathing circuit, respectively. All dogs were placed on a WWB in the operating room (OR). The RT was recorded at baseline, premedication, induction, transfer to OR, every 15 minutes during maintenance of anesthesia, and extubation. Incidence of hypothermia (RT < 37 °C) at extubation was recorded. Data were analyzed using unpaired t tests, the Fisher exact test, and mixed-effect ANOVA. Statistical significance was defined as P < .05.
There was no difference in RT during baseline, premedication, induction, and transfer to OR. The overall RT was higher for the HHBC group during anesthesia (P = .005) and at extubation (37.7 ± 0.6 °C) compared with the control group (36.6 ± 1.0 °C; P = .006). The incidence of hypothermia at extubation was 12.5% for the HHBC group and 66.7% for the control group (P = .014).
The combination of HHBC and WWB can reduce the incidence of postanesthetic hypothermia in dogs. Use of an HHBC should be considered in veterinary patients.
To summarize the anesthetic events of snakes seen at a large university hospital, identify challenges with record keeping, and assess patient and anesthesia-related morbidity and death.
139 anesthetic events were performed; only 106 cases had detailed anesthetic reports available for further analyses.
Medical records of snakes that underwent general anesthesia between October 2000 and January 2022 were retrospectively reviewed. Only cases with complete anesthesia records were used to assess anesthetic parameters. Collected data included general patient details, diagnoses, procedures, premedication, induction, maintenance, monitoring, and recovery.
A thorough review of the records identified issues or scenarios that resulted in poor record management as well as highlighted the most frequently used anesthetics in snakes. For premedication this was alfaxalone, butorphanol, and hydromorphone, whereas isoflurane, alfaxalone, or propofol were the most common with induction. Lastly, with maintenance, isoflurane was the most popular choice. Of the 139 cases performed, 127 animals recovered, 8 were euthanatized due to poor prognosis, and 4 failed to recover. All snakes that failed to recover had preexisting disease identified pre-, peri-, or postoperatively at necropsy.
General anesthesia can be reliably and safely undertaken in snakes without severe preexisting disease. Efforts should be directed at identifying preexisting disease and maintaining and completing anesthesia records, and we recommend an auditing system to identify and correct issues as they arise.
Objective—To compare the outcomes of doublelayer
inverting anastomosis (DIA), single-layer anastomosis
(SLA), and single-layer anastomosis combined
with a hyaluronate membrane (SLA+HA-membrane)
with respect to stomal diameter, adhesion formation,
surgery time, and anastomotic healing in horses.
Animals—18 adult horses.
Procedure—Midline celiotomy and end-to-end anastomoses
were performed. In control horses (n = 6),
DIA was performed; in treated horses, SLA was performed
(6) or SLA+HA-membrane was performed (6).
Horses were euthanatized 21 days after surgery.
Abdominal adhesions were evaluated grossly and histologically.
Stomal diameters were measured ultrasonographically
and compared with adjacent luminal
diameters. Anastomotic healing was evaluated histologically
for fibrosis and inflammation, tissue alignment,
and inversion. Surgery times were recorded for
the anastomotic procedure and compared among
Results—There were significantly more adhesions in
the SLA group, compared with the DIA and SLA+HAmembrane
groups. Reduction in stomal diameters in
the DIA group was significantly greater than the SLA
and SLA+HA-membrane groups. Surgery times for
the DIA group were significantly greater than the SLA
and SLA+HA-membrane groups. Histologic findings
of fibrosis, inflammation, and mucosal healing were
similar among groups. There was significant tissue
inversion in the DIA group, compared with the 2 treatment
groups. Tissue alignment was not different
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Use of a
SLA+HA-membrane was an effective small intestinal
anastomotic technique. This technique was faster to
perform and resulted in a larger stomal diameter,
compared with the DIA technique and significantly
fewer perianastomotic adhesions, compared with the
SLA technique. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1314–1319)