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To determine whether implementation of a standardized perianesthetic protocol was associated with reduced incidence of postoperative regurgitation, pneumonia, and respiratory distress in brachycephalic dogs undergoing general anesthesia for airway surgery.


84 client-owned dogs.


A perianesthetic protocol that included preoperative administration of metoclopramide and famotidine, restrictive use of opioids, and recovery of patients in the intensive care unit was fully implemented for brachycephalic dogs in July 2014. Medical records of brachycephalic dogs (specifically Boston Terriers, French Bulldogs, English Bulldogs, and Pugs) undergoing anesthesia for airway surgery before (group A) and after (group B) protocol implementation were reviewed. Patient characteristics, administration of medications described in the protocol, surgical procedures performed, anesthesia duration, recovery location, and postoperative development of regurgitation, pneumonia, and respiratory distress were recorded. Data were compared between groups.


The proportion of dogs with postoperative regurgitation in group B (4/44 [9%]) was significantly lower than that in group A (14/40 [35%]). No intergroup differences in patient characteristics (including history of regurgitation), procedures performed, or anesthesia duration were found. Rates of development of postoperative pneumonia and respiratory distress did not differ between groups. A history of regurgitation was associated with development of postoperative regurgitation.


Implementation of the described protocol was associated with decreased incidence of postoperative regurgitation in brachycephalic dogs undergoing anesthesia. Prospective studies are warranted to elucidate specific causes of this finding.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine risk factors for prolonged anesthetic recovery time in horses that underwent general anesthesia for ocular surgery.

Design—Retrospective cohort study.

Animals—81 horses that underwent general anesthesia for ocular surgery between 2006 and 2013.

Procedures—Descriptive information recorded included the ocular procedure performed, concurrent fluconazole treatments, analgesic and anesthetic agents administered, procedure duration, use of sedation for recovery, and recovery time. Data were analyzed for associations between recovery time and other variables.

Results—81 horses met inclusion criteria. In 72 horses, anesthesia was induced with ketamine and midazolam; 16 horses treated concurrently with fluconazole had significantly longer mean recovery time (109 minutes [95% confidence interval {CI}, 94 to 124 minutes]) than did 56 horses that were not treated with fluconazole (50 minutes [95% CI, 44 to 55 minutes]). In 9 horses anesthetized with a protocol that included ketamine but did not include midazolam, there was no difference between mean recovery time in horses that either received (59 minutes [95% CI, 36 to 81 minutes]; n = 5) or did not receive (42 minutes [95% CI, 16 to 68 minutes]; 4) fluconazole. Other variables identified as risk factors for prolonged recovery included duration of anesthesia and use of acepromazine for premedication.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Fluconazole administration was associated with prolonged anesthetic recovery time in horses when ketamine and midazolam were used to induce anesthesia for ocular surgery. Duration of anesthesia and premedication with acepromazine were also identified as risk factors for prolonged recovery time.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE To determine the locomotor response to the administration of fentanyl in horses with and without the G57C polymorphism of the μ-opioid receptor.

ANIMALS 20 horses of various breeds and ages (10 horses heterozygous for the G57C polymorphism and 10 age-, breed-, and sex-matched horses that did not have the G57C polymorphism).

PROCEDURES The number of steps each horse took was counted over consecutive 2-minute periods for 20 minutes to determine a baseline value. The horse then received a bolus of fentanyl (20 μg/kg, IV), and the number of steps was again counted during consecutive 2-minute periods for 60 minutes. The mean baseline value was subtracted from each 2-minute period after fentanyl administration; step counts with negative values were assigned a value of 0. Data were analyzed by use of a repeated-measures ANOVA.

RESULTS Data for 19 of 20 horses (10 horses with the G57C polymorphism and 9 control horses without the G57C polymorphism) were included in the analysis. Horses with the G57C polymorphism had a significant increase in locomotor activity, compared with results for horses without the polymorphism. There was a significant group-by-time interaction.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Horses heterozygous for the G57C polymorphism of the μ-opioid receptor had an increased locomotor response to fentanyl administration, compared with the response for horses without this polymorphism. The clinical impact of this finding should be investigated.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To investigate the prescription of analgesic drugs to hospitalized critically ill dogs and cats and determine compliance of nursing staff in administering the prescribed analgesics.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Animals—272 dogs and 79 cats hospitalized in an intensive care unit during a 2-month period.

Procedure—Patient treatment orders were examined daily for details regarding prescribed and administered analgesic drugs.

Results—A mean of 39% of cats and dogs in the intensive care unit were prescribed analgesic drugs each day, the most common of which were opioids. Local anesthetic drugs, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and ketamine were prescribed less frequently. Cats were less likely than dogs to receive analgesics after traumatic injury, but the difference was not significant. There was no difference between species in frequency of prescription of analgesic drugs after surgery. Most patients were prescribed a single class of analgesic drug; only 13% had orders for multiple analgesics. Of the patients for which analgesics were prescribed, 64% received them exactly as prescribed, 23% had at least 1 reduction in dosing, and 13% had at least 1 increase in dosing. When a decrease in dosing occurred, the drugs were opioids in each instance, whereas when drug dosing was increased, the drugs were of various types.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Discrepancies sometimes existed between the dose of analgesic prescribed and that administered. This appeared to occur primarily because of concerns about adverse effects of opioid drugs. Strategies to reduce these effects may improve pain management in critically ill dogs and cats. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:425–429)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association